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Bangkok, Thailand

Chulalongkorn University , officially abbreviated as CU and commonly abbreviated as Chula , is the oldest university under the Thai modern educational system, founded in 1917 by King Vajiravudh who named it after his father, King Chulalongkorn . It is one of the best universities in Thailand and Southeast Asia according to several university rankings. It comprises nineteen faculties and institutes.Its campus occupies a vast area in downtown Bangkok. Diplomas were traditionally handed out at graduation by the King of Thailand, created and begun by King Prajadhipok . But at present, King Bhumibol Adulyadej delegates the role to one of his daughters, Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn. Wikipedia.

Although, increased oxidative stress and hypomethylation of long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) associate with bladder cancer (BCa) development, the relationship between these alterations is unknown. We evaluated the oxidative stress and hypomethylation of the LINE-1 in 61 BCa patients and 45 normal individuals. To measure the methylation levels and to differentiate the LINE-1 loci into hypermethylated, partially methylated and hypomethylated, peripheral blood cells, urinary exfoliated cells and cancerous tissues were evaluated by combined bisulfite restriction analysis PCR. The urinary total antioxidant status (TAS) and plasma protein carbonyl content were determined. The LINE-1 methylation levels and patterns, especially hypomethylated loci, in the blood and urine cells of the BCa patients were different from the levels and patterns in the healthy controls. The urinary TAS was decreased, whereas the plasma protein carbonyl content was increased in the BCa patients relative to the controls. A positive correlation between the methylation of LINE-1 in the blood-derived DNA and urinary TAS was found in both the BCa and control groups. The urinary hypomethylated LINE-1 loci and the plasma protein carbonyl content provided the best diagnostic potential for BCa prediction. Based on post-diagnostic samples, the combination test improved the diagnostic power to a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 96%. In conclusion, decreased LINE-1 methylation is associated with increased oxidative stress both in healthy and BCa subjects across the various tissue types, implying a dose-response association. Increases in the LINE-1 hypomethylation levels and the number of hypomethylated loci in both the blood- and urine-derived cells and increase in the oxidative stress were found in the BCa patients. The combination test of the urinary hypomethylated LINE-1 loci and the plasma protein carbonyl content may be useful for BCa screening and monitoring of treatment. Source

Chaiteerakij R.,Chulalongkorn University
American Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVES:Current staging systems for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (pCCA) are inadequate, as they are based on surgical pathology and therefore not relevant to unresectable patients. Clinical trials for potential targeted therapies for pCCA are hampered by the lack of an accurate, nonoperative staging system for predicting survival. We aimed at developing a clinical staging system for pCCA, which would be of prognostic relevance for all pCCA patients and help stratify patients for clinical trials.METHODS:Clinical information at the time of pCCA diagnosis of 413 patients seen at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN between 2002 and 2010 was retrospectively analyzed. A survival predictive model was developed using Cox proportional hazards analysis. The performance of the staging system was compared with the current AJCC/UICC (the American Joint Committee on Cancer/the Union for International Cancer Control) 7th tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging system.RESULTS:Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status, tumor size and number, vascular encasement, lymph node and peritoneal metastasis and CA 19-9 level were grouped into a four-tier staging system. The median survivals of stages I, II, III, and IV patients were 48.6, 21.8, 8.6, and 2.8 months, with hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of 1.0 (reference), 1.7 (1.1–2.6), 3.1 (2.0–4.7), and 8.7 (5.2–14.5), respectively (P<0.0001). This staging system had greater concordance statistics (standard error) than the TNM staging system (0.725 (0.018) vs. 0.614 (0.017)), indicating better performance in predicting survival.CONCLUSIONS:This staging system, based on nonoperative information at the time of pCCA diagnosis, has excellent discriminatory power to classify patients into four prognostic stages. It could be useful to clinicians and for the design of clinical trials.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 11 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ajg.2014.327. © 2014 American College of Gastroenterology Source

Warren J.K.,Chulalongkorn University
Earth-Science Reviews | Year: 2010

Throughout geological time, evaporite sediments form by solar-driven concentration of a surface or nearsurface brine. Large, thick and extensive deposits dominated by rock-salt (mega-halite) or anhydrite (mega-sulfate) deposits tend to be marine evaporites and can be associated with extensive deposits of potash salts (mega-potash). Ancient marine evaporite deposition required particular climatic, eustatic or tectonic juxtapositions that have occurred a number of times in the past and will so again in the future. Ancient marine evaporites typically have poorly developed Quaternary counterparts in scale, thickness, tectonics and hydrology. When mega-evaporite settings were active within appropriate arid climatic and hydrological settings then huge volumes of seawater were drawn into the subsealevel evaporitic depressions. These systems were typical of regions where the evaporation rates of ocean waters were at their maximum, and so were centred on the past latitudinal equivalents of today's horse latitudes. But, like today's nonmarine evaporites, the location of marine Phanerozoic evaporites in zones of appropriate adiabatic aridity and continentality extended well into the equatorial belts. Exploited deposits of borate, sodium carbonate (soda-ash) and sodium sulfate (salt-cake) salts, along with evaporitic sediments hosting lithium-rich brines require continental-meteoric not marine-fed hydrologies. Plots of the world's Phanerozoic and Neoproterozoic evaporite deposits, using a GIS base, shows that Quaternary evaporite deposits are poor counterparts to the greater part of the world's Phanerozoic evaporite deposits. They are only directly relevant to same-scale continental hydrologies of the past and, as such, are used in this paper to better understand what is needed to create beds rich in salt-cake, soda-ash, borate and lithium salts. These deposits tend be Neogene and mostly occur in suprasealevel hydrographically-isolated (endorheic) continental intermontane and desert margin settings that are subject to the pluvial-interpluvial oscillations of Neogene ice-house climates. When compared to ancient marine evaporites, today's marine-fed subsealevel deposits tend to be small sea-edge deposits, their distribution and extent is limited by the current ice-house driven eustasy and a lack of appropriate hydrographically isolated subsealevel tectonic depressions. For the past forty years, Quaternary continental lacustrine deposit models have been applied to the interpretation of ancient marine evaporite basins without recognition of the time-limited nature of this type of comparison. Ancient mega-evaporite deposits (platform and/or basinwide deposits) require conditions of epeiric seaways (greenhouse climate) and/or continent-continent proximity. Basinwide evaporite deposition is facilitated by continent-continent proximity at the plate tectonic scale (Late stage E through stage B in the Wilson cycle). This creates an isostatic response where, in the appropriate arid climate belt, large portions of the collision suture belt or the incipient opening rift can be subsealevel, hydrographically isolated (a marine evaporite drawdown basin) and yet fed seawater by a combination of ongoing seepage and occasional marine overflow. Basinwide evaporite deposits can be classified by their tectonic setting into: convergent (collision basin), divergent (rift basin; prerift, synrift and postrift) and intracratonic settings. Ancient platform evaporites can be a subset of basinwide deposits, especially in intracratonic sag basins, or part of a widespread epeiric marine platform fill. In the latter case they tend to form mega-sulfate deposits and are associated with hydrographically isolated marine fed saltern and evaporitic mudflat systems in a greenhouse climatic setting. The lower amplitude 4 and 5th order marine eustatic cycles and the greater magnitude of marine freeboard during greenhouse climatic periods encourages deposition of marine platform mega-sulfates. Platform mega-evaporites in intracratonic settings are typically combinations of halite and sulfate beds. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Objectives To compare the efficacy of intravenous iron and oral iron for prevention of blood transfusions in gynecologic cancer patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy. Materials and methods Sixty-four non anemic gynecologic cancer patients receiving adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy were stratified and randomized according to baseline hemoglobin levels and chemotherapy regimen. The study group received 200 mg of intravenous iron sucrose immediately after each chemotherapy infusion. The control group received oral ferrous fumarate at a dose of 200 mg three times a day. Complete blood count was monitored before each chemotherapy infusion. Blood transfusions were given if hemoglobin level was below 10 mg/dl. Results There were 32 patients in each group. No significant differences in baseline hemoglobin levels and baseline characteristics were demonstrated between both groups. Nine patients (28.1%) in the study group and 18 patients (56.3%) in the control group required blood transfusion through 6 cycles of chemotherapy (p = 0.02). Fewer median number of total packed red cell units were required in the study group compared to the control group (0 and 0.5 unit, respectively, p = 0.04). Serious adverse events and hypersensitivity reactions were not reported. However, constipation was significantly higher in the control group (3.1% and 40.6%, p = < 0.001). Conclusions Intravenous iron is an effective, well-tolerated treatment for primary prevention of blood transfusions in gynecologic cancer patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy, associated with less constipation than the oral formulation. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Vilaivan T.,Chulalongkorn University
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2015

ConspectusThe specific pairing between two complementary nucleobases (A·T, C·G) according to the Watson-Crick rules is by no means unique to natural nucleic acids. During the past few decades a number of nucleic acid analogues or mimics have been developed, and peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is one of the most intriguing examples. In addition to forming hybrids with natural DNA/RNA as well as itself with high affinity and specificity, the uncharged peptide-like backbone of PNA confers several unique properties not observed in other classes of nucleic acid analogues. PNA is therefore suited to applications currently performed by conventional oligonucleotides/analogues and others potentially beyond this. In addition, PNA is also interesting in its own right as a new class of oligonucleotide mimics. Unlimited opportunities exist to modify the PNA structure, stimulating the search for new systems with improved properties or additional functionality not present in the original PNA, driving future research and applications of these in nanotechnology and beyond. Although many structural variations of PNA exist, significant improvements to date have been limited to a few constrained derivatives of the privileged N-2-aminoethylglycine PNA scaffold. In this Account, we summarize our contributions in this field: the development of a new family of conformationally constrained pyrrolidinyl PNA having a nonchimeric α/β-dipeptide backbone derived from nucleobase-modified proline and cyclic β-amino acids. The conformational constraints dictated by the pyrrolidine ring and the β-amino acid are essential requirements determining the binding efficiency, as the structure and stereochemistry of the PNA backbone significantly affect its ability to interact with DNA, RNA, and in self-pairing. The modular nature of the dipeptide backbone simplifies the synthesis and allows for rapid structural optimization. Pyrrolidinyl PNA having a (2′R,4′R)-proline/(1S,2S)-2-aminocyclopentanecarboxylic backbone (acpcPNA) binds to DNA with outstanding affinity and sequence specificity. It also binds to RNA in a highly sequence-specific fashion, albeit with lower affinity than to DNA. Additional characteristics include exclusive antiparallel/parallel selectivity and a low tendency for self-hybridization. Modification of the nucleobase or backbone allowing site-specific incorporation of labels and other functions to acpcPNA via click and other conjugation chemistries is possible, generating functional PNAs that are suitable for various applications. DNA sensing and biological applications of acpcPNA have been demonstrated, but these are still in their infancy and the full potential of pyrrolidinyl PNA is yet to be realized. With properties competitive with, and in some aspects superior to, the best PNA technology available to date, pyrrolidinyl PNA offers great promise as a platform system for future elaboration for the fabrication of new functional materials, nanodevices, and next-generation analytical tools. © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source

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