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Nantajit D.,Chulabhorn Hospital | Lin D.,University of California at Davis | Li J.J.,University of California at Davis
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology | Year: 2015

Purpose: In multiple cell metazoans, the ability of polarized epithelial cells to convert to motile mesenchymal cells in order to relocate to another location is governed by a unique process termed epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). While being an essential process of cellular plasticity for normal tissue and organ developments, EMT is found to be involved in an array of malignant phenotypes of tumor cells including proliferation and invasion, angiogenesis, stemness of cancer cells and resistance to chemo-radiotherapy. Although EMT is being extensively studied and demonstrated to play a key role in tumor metastasis and in sustaining tumor hallmarks, there is a lack of clear picture of the overall EMT signaling network, wavering the potential clinical trials targeting EMT. Methods: In this review, we highlight the potential key therapeutic targets of EMT linked with tumor aggressiveness, hypoxia, angiogenesis and cancer stem cells, emphasizing on an emerging EMT-associated NF-κB/HER2/STAT3 pathway in radioresistance of breast cancer stem cells. Results: Further definition of cancer stem cell repopulation due to EMT-controlled tumor microenvironment will help to understand how tumors exploit the EMT mechanisms for their survival and expansion advantages. Conclusions: The knowledge of EMT will offer more effective targets in clinical trials to treat therapy-resistant metastatic lesions. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

PubMed | Rajavithi Hospital, Office of Atoms for Peace, Rangsit University and Chulabhorn Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Asia Oceania journal of nuclear medicine & biology | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to determine whether high-dose radioactive iodine (Na(131)I) outpatient treatment of patients with thyroid carcinoma is a pragmatically safe approach, particularly for the safety of caregivers.A total of 79 patients completed the radiation-safety questionnaires prior to receiving high-dose radioactive iodine treatment. The questionnaire studied the subjects willingness to be treated as outpatients, along with the radiation safety status of their caregivers and family members. In patients, who were selected to be treated as outpatients, both internal and external radiation exposures of their primary caregivers were measured, using thyroid uptake system and electronic dosimeter, respectively.Overall, 62 out of 79 patients were willing to be treated as outpatients; however, only 44 cases were eligible for the treatment. The primary reason was that the patients did not use exclusive, separated bathrooms. The caregivers of 10 subjects, treated as outpatients, received an average radiation dose of 138.1 microsievert (mSv), which was almost entirely from external exposure; the internal radiation exposures were mostly at negligible values. Therefore, radiation exposure to caregivers was significantly below the public exposure limit (1 mSv) and the recommended limit for caregivers (5 mSv).A safe (131)I outpatient treatment in patients with thyroid carcinoma could be achieved by selective screening and providing instructions for patients and their caregivers.

Promteangtrong C.,University of Pennsylvania | Promteangtrong C.,Chulabhorn Hospital | Salavati A.,University of Pennsylvania | Cheng G.,University of Pennsylvania | And 2 more authors.
Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine | Year: 2014

Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. The diagnosis is based on clinical and radiographic findings as well as by histopathological findings. Molecular imaging in recent years has made important progress regarding the study of various inflammatory diseases including sarcoidosis. Positron emission tomography (PET) provides an insight in metabolism of this disease. Positron emission tomography with fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) has shown effectiveness in detecting occult disease and assessing disease activity during treatment. This review article provides an overview of the applications of PET/computed tomography and PET/ magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of patients with sarcoidosis.

PubMed | Chulabhorn Hospital and Data Management
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular and clinical oncology | Year: 2017

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) or bile duct cancer is a rare cancer type in developed countries, while its prevalence is increased in southeast Asia, affecting ~33.4 men and ~12.3 women per 100,000 individuals. CCA is one of the most lethal types of cancer. Neo-adjuvant and adjuvant therapies have been shown to have limited efficacy in improving the overall prognosis of patients. Radiotherapy has been reported to prolong the survival times of patients with certain characteristics. The present study retrospectively evaluated the medical records and follow-up data from 27 CCA patients who received radiotherapy at Chulabhorn Hospital (Bangkok, Thailand) between 2008 and 2014. A total of 14 patients underwent surgery followed by adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Of the 27 CCA patients, 14 had intrahepatic CCA, 2 had extrahepatic CCA and 11 had hilar CCA. The 2-year survival rate was 40.7%. Tumor resectability, clinical symptoms and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score were found to be indicative of patient prognosis. In addition, the planning target volume and biologically effective radiotherapy dose were of prognostic value; however, initial treatment response was ambiguous in predicting survival time. The findings of the present study suggested that the currently used radiotherapy protocols for CCA may require modification to improve their efficacy.

Tempark T.,Chulalongkorn University | Lueangarun S.,Chulabhorn Hospital | Chatproedprai S.,Chulalongkorn University | Wananukul S.,Chulalongkorn University
International Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2013

Flood is one of the most common natural disasters, which commonly occurs in all parts of the world. The effects of the disasters considerably become enormous problems to overall public health systems. Flood-related skin diseases are a portion of these consequences presenting with cutaneous manifestations and/or signs of systemic illnesses. We conducted a systematic literature review of research publications relating to flooding and skin diseases. The purpose of this review was to provide dermatologists as well as general practitioners with comprehensive conditions of flood-related skin diseases and suggested treatments. Moreover, we categorized these flood-related diseases into four groups comprising inflammatory skin diseases, skin infections, traumatic skin diseases, and other miscellaneous skin diseases in a bid to implement early interventions and educate, prevent, and efficaciously handle those skin diseases under such a catastrophic situation so that better treatment outcomes and prevention of further complications could be ultimately achieved and accomplished. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

Sangmala P.,Mahidol University | Sangmala P.,Chulabhorn Hospital | Chaikledkaew U.,Mahidol University | Tanwandee T.,Siriraj Hospital | Pongchareonsuk P.,Mahidol University
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2014

Background: The incidence rate and the treatment costs of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are high, especially in Thailand. Previous studies indicated that early detection by a surveillance program could help by down-staging. This study aimed to compare the costs and health outcomes associated with the introduction of a HCC surveillance program with no program and to estimate the budget impact if the HCC surveillance program were implemented. Materials and Methods: A cost utility analysis using a decision tree and Markov models was used to compare costs and outcomes during the lifetime period based on a societal perspective between alternative HCC surveillance strategies with no program. Costs included direct medical, direct non-medical, and indirect costs. Health outcomes were measured as life years (LYs), and quality adjusted life years (QALYs). The results were presented in terms of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in Thai THB per QALY gained. Oneway and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were applied to investigate parameter uncertainties. Budget impact analysis (BIA) was performed based on the governmental perspective. Results: Semi-annual ultrasonography (US) and semi-annual ultrasonography plus alpha-fetoprotein (US plus AFP) as the first screening for HCC surveillance would be cost-effective options at the willingness to pay (WTP) threshold of 160,000 THB per QALY gained compared with no surveillance program (ICER=118,796 and ICER=123,451THB/QALY), respectively. The semi-annual US plus AFP yielded more net monetary benefit, but caused a substantially higher budget (237 to 502 million THB) than semi-annual US (81 to 201 million THB) during the next ten fiscal years. Conclusions: Our results suggested that a semi-annual US program should be used as the first screening for HCC surveillance and included in the benefit package of Thai health insurance schemes for both chronic hepatitis B males and females aged between 40-50 years. In addition, policy makers considered the program could be feasible, but additional evidence is needed to support the whole prevention system before the implementation of a strategic plan.

Lueangarun S.,Chulabhorn Hospital | Leelarasamee A.,Mahidol University
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Background. Inappropriate empiric antimicrobials could be a major cause of unfavorable mortality rates in co-morbid patients. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and impact of first-dose and 24-hour inappropriate antimicrobials on mortality rates of bacteremic septic patients. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was employed. Case record forms of patients diagnosed as sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock with positive hemoculture during 2009 were retrieved from the medical wards, Siriraj Hospital. Demographic data, antimicrobial use, types of bacteria isolated from blood and susceptibilities, patients' comorbidities, 28-day and overall mortality rates were collected and analyzed. Results. There were 229 cases, mean age (SD) of 63.5 (17.2) years and mean (SD) APACHE II score of 24.7 (6.8). The prevalence of first-dose and 24-hour inappropriate antimicrobials was 29.7 and 25.3, respectively. The 28-day and overall mortality rates between first-dose inappropriate and appropriate antimicrobial were 67.6 versus 60.2 (P = 0.301) and 75.0 versus 68.3 (P = 0.345), consequently. Patients with septic shock and inappropriate first-dose antimicrobials significantly had higher 28-day mortality rate (61.6 versus 41.9; P = 0.017). Conclusion. Higher mortality rates in bacteremic septic patients were substantially associated with inappropriate first-dose antimicrobials and 3-hour delayed antimicrobial administration after sepsis diagnosis. © 2012 Saoraya Lueangarun and Amorn Leelarasamee.

PubMed | Chulabhorn Research Institute and Chulabhorn Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Planta medica | Year: 2016

Andrographis paniculata contains four major active diterpenoids, including andrographolide (1), 14-deoxy-11, 12-didehydroandrographolide (2), neoandrographolide (3), and 14-deoxyandrographolide (4), which exhibit differences in types and/or degrees of their pharmacological activity. Previous pharmacokinetic studies in humans reported only the parameters of compound 1 and its analytical method in human plasma. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple, sensitive, and selective liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry technique for the simultaneous determination of all four major active diterpenoids in the A. paniculata product in human plasma. These four diterpenoids in plasma samples were extracted by a simple protein precipitation method with methanol and separated on a Kinetex C18 column using a gradient system with a mobile phase of acetonitrile and water. The liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry was performed in the negative mode, and the multiple reaction monitoring mode was used for the quantitation. The method showed a good linearity over a wide concentration range of 2.50-500ng/mL for 1 and over the range of 1.00-500ng/mL for the other diterpenoids with a correlation coefficient R(2)>0.995. The lower limit of quantification of 1 was found to be 2.50ng/mL, while those of the other diterpenoids were 1.00ng/mL. The intraday and interday accuracy (relative error) ranged from 0.03% to 10.03%, and the intraday and interday precisions (relative standard deviation) were in the range of 2.05-9.67%. The extraction recovery (86.54-111.56%) with a relative standard deviation of 2.78-8.61% and the matrix effect (85.15-112.36%) were within the acceptance criteria. Moreover, these four major active diterpenoids were stable in plasma samples at the studied storage conditions with a relative error -9.79% and a relative standard deviation 9.26%. Hence, this present method was successfully validated and used in the pilot study to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of all four major active diterpenoids in human plasma after multiple oral doses of the A. paniculata product were administered to a healthy, Thai female volunteer.

PubMed | Khon Kaen University and Chulabhorn Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Asia Oceania journal of nuclear medicine & biology | Year: 2016

Diagnostic nuclear medicine is being increasingly employed in clinical practice with the advent of new technologies and radiopharmaceuticals. The report of the prevalence of a certain disease is important for assessing the quality of that article. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate the quality of published nuclear medicine articles and determine the frequency of reporting the prevalence of studied diseases.We used Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) and Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) checklists for evaluating the quality of articles published in five nuclear medicine journals with the highest impact factors in 2012. The articles were retrieved from Scopus database and were selected and assessed independently by two nuclear medicine physicians. Decision concerning equivocal data was made by consensus between the reviewers.The average STARD score was approximately 17 points, and the highest score was 17.192.38 obtained by the European Journal of Nuclear Medicine. QUADAS-2 tool showed that all journals had low bias regarding study population. The Journal of Nuclear Medicine had the highest score in terms of index test, reference standard, and time interval. Lack of clarity regarding the index test, reference standard, and time interval was frequently observed in all journals including Clinical Nuclear Medicine, in which 64% of the studies were unclear regarding the index test. Journal of Nuclear Cardiology had the highest number of articles with appropriate reference standard (83.3%), though it had the lowest frequency of reporting disease prevalence (zero reports). All five journals had the same STARD score, while index test, reference standard, and time interval were very unclear according to QUADAS-2 tool. Unfortunately, data were too limited to determine which journal had the lowest risk of bias. In fact, it is the authors responsibility to provide details of research methodology so that the reader can assess the quality of research articles.Five nuclear medicine journals with the highest impact factor were comparable in terms of STARD score, although they all showed lack of clarity regarding index test, reference standard, and time interval, according to QUADAS-2. The current data were too limited to determine the journal with the lowest bias. Thus, a comprehensive overview of the research methodology of each article is of paramount importance to enable the reader to assess the quality of articles.

PubMed | Chulabhorn Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Asia Oceania journal of nuclear medicine & biology | Year: 2016

This study aimed to compare the diagnostic values of (11)C-choline and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA).This prospective study was conducted on 10 patients (6 males and 4 females), aged 42-69 years, suspected of having CCA based on CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results. (11)C-choline and (18)F-FDG PET/CT studies were performed in all patients over 1 week. PET/CT results were visually analyzed by 2 independent nuclear medicine physicians and quantitatively by calculating the tumor-to-background ratio (T/B).No (11)C-choline PET/CT uptake was observed in primary extrahepatic or intrahepatic CCA cases. Intense (18)F-FDG avidity was detected in the tumors of 8 patients (%80). Two patients, who were (18)F-FDG negative, had primary extrahepatic CCA. Ki-67 measurements were positive in all patients (range; 14.2%-39.9%). The average T/B values of (11)C-choline and (18)F-FDG were 0.40.2 and 2.01.0 in all cases of primary CCA, respectively; these values were significantly lower for (11)C-choline (P<0.005). Both FDG and (11)C-choline PET/CT detected metastatic CCA foci in all 8 patients (two patients had no metastases).As the results suggested, primary CCA lesions showed a poor avidity for (11)C-choline, whereas (18)F-FDG PET/CT was of value for the detection of most primary CCA cases. In contrast to primary lesions, metastatic CCA lesions showed (11)C-choline avidity.

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