Chuka, Kenya

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Ng W.-T.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Rima P.,Kenya Forestry Research Institute | Rima P.,Chuka University | Einzmann K.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | And 3 more authors.
Remote Sensing | Year: 2017

Prosopis was introduced to Baringo, Kenya in the early 1980s for provision of fuelwood and for controlling desertification through the Fuelwood Afforestation Extension Project (FAEP). Since then, Prosopis has hybridized and spread throughout the region. Prosopis has negative ecological impacts on biodiversity and socio-economic effects on livelihoods. Vachellia tortilis, on the other hand, is the dominant indigenous tree species in Baringo and is an important natural resource, mostly preferred for wood, fodder and charcoal production. High utilization due to anthropogenic pressure is affecting the Vachellia populations, whereas the well adapted Prosopis-competing for nutrients and water-has the potential to replace the native Vachellia vegetation. It is vital that both species are mapped in detail to inform stakeholders and for designing management strategies for controlling the Prosopis invasion. For the Baringo area, few remote sensing studies have been carried out. We propose a detailed and robust object-based Random Forest (RF) classification on high spatial resolution Sentinel-2 (ten meter) and Pléiades (two meter) data to detect Prosopis and Vachellia spp. for Marigat sub-county, Baringo, Kenya. In situ reference data were collected to train a RF classifier. Classification results were validated by comparing the outputs to independent reference data of test sites from the "Woody Weeds" project and the Out-Of-Bag (OOB) confusion matrix generated in RF. Our results indicate that both datasets are suitable for object-based Prosopis and Vachellia classification. Higher accuracies were obtained by using the higher spatial resolution Pléiades data (OOB accuracy 0.83 and independent reference accuracy 0.87-0.91) compared to the Sentinel-2 data (OOB accuracy 0.79 and independent reference accuracy 0.80-0.96). We conclude that it is possible to separate Prosopis and Vachellia with good accuracy using the Random Forest classifier. Given the cost of Pléiades, the free of charge Sentinel-2 data provide a viable alternative as the increased spectral resolution compensates for the lack of spatial resolution. With global revisit times of five days from next year onwards, Sentinel-2 based classifications can probably be further improved by using temporal information in addition to the spectral signatures. © 2017, by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Nischwitz V.,Central Institute for Engineering | Mogwasi R.,University of Nairobi | Zor S.,Central Institute for Engineering | Getenga Z.,Chuka University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2017

A large number of medicinal plants is traditionally known in Kenya and used for treatment of various diseases, for example diabetes, where metals are supposed to be involved in pathogenesis and therapy. Therefore, detailed investigation of the concentration of a large number of metals in medicinal plants is required for improved understanding and optimisation of the therapeutic role of metals and also to exclude potentially toxic effects. Our study focused on the determination of 30 selected elements in 19 medicinal plant species each collected from 3 sampling locations in Nyamira County, Kenya. The obtained comprehensive data set showed large variability and multivariate data analysis revealed that the differences in the elemental composition were stronger dependent on the plant species than on the sampling location. In addition, hot water extractions were performed to mimic the traditional preparation of medicine from the plants. It was found that the mean extraction efficiencies were below 20% except for B, Mg, P, K, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Mo, Cd and Tl, which are mostly essential elements apart from Cd and Tl. Sequential (ultra)filtration of the extracts was applied as novel approach for molecular size-fractionation of the extracted elemental species. The results indicate more than 50% low molecular weight species (<3 kDa) for Mg, Mn, Co, Ni and Zn while predominantly larger size-fractions (>3 kDa up to <5 μm) were detected for V, Cu, Al and Fe. © 2016 Elsevier GmbH


Otachi E.O.,University of Vienna | Otachi E.O.,Egerton University | Magana A.E.M.,Chuka University | Jirsa F.,University of Vienna | And 2 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2014

In Lake Naivasha, the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. 1758 was accidentally introduced from fish farms adjacent to River Malewa in 1999 and now forms the bulk of the total fish caught. Since its introduction, no study has been made on its parasitic community nor are there any reports on ectoparasites from other fish species in this lake to the best of our knowledge. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the parasitic community of C. carpio and two other commercially important fish species: Oreochromis leucostictus and Tilapia zillii. Additionally, the abundant Barbus paludinosus was included in the study. A total of 286 fish (145C. carpio, 56 O. leucostictus, 18 T. zillii, and 67 B. paludinosus) were collected during the year 2011 and examined. Ten taxa of parasites were recovered from C. carpio dominated by the monogenean Dactylogyrus minutus, occurring with a prevalence (p) of 99.3 %. Thirteen taxa of parasites were identified from O. leucostictus dominated by monogeneans Cichlidogyrus spp. (p = 91.1 %). T. zillii harbored nine taxa of parasites with the digenean Tylodelphys sp. (p = 83.3 %) being dominant and B. paludinosus harbored 11 taxa of parasites dominated by an unidentified monogenean of the genus Dactylogyrus (p = 83.6 %). C. carpio had the lowest helminth species diversity and richness while monogenetic trematodes, which have never been reported from fish in Lake Naivasha, were the most prevalent parasites recovered. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Odhiambo R.,Kenyatta University | Muthakia G.K.,Kenyatta University | Kagwanja S.M.,Chuka University
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia | Year: 2010

New complexes derived from the reaction of Mo(NO)Tp* Cl2 = Tp* = tris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl) borate with a series of manganese(II) Schiff bases have been synthesized. Characterization by UV, IR, MS and elemental analysis support their formulations. Cyclic and differential pulse voltammograms of manganese(II) Schiff base monometallic complexes exhibit one reduction peak which may be associated with the reduction of the manganese(II) center. In CH3CN solutions, the molybdenum(II)-manganese(II) bimetallic complexes showed two reversible reduction peaks which are associated with the reduction of the molybdenum and manganese centers. In CH2Cl2, only the reduction of molybdenum(II) center exhibited reversibility while the reduction of manganese(II) center was irreversible. These observations demonstrate that reduction potentials for bimetallic complexes are solvent dependent. © 2010 Chemical Society of Ethiopia.


Kamweru P.K.,Chuka University | Tindibale E.L.,Egerton University
International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms | Year: 2016

Vitamin D may have an important role in many aspects of human health, from bone fractures to prostate cancer, cardiovascular disease, neuromuscular problems, and diabetes. Vitamin D is produced in the human body by the skin after sunlight absorption, but as human lifestyles change, so does the time of exposure to sunlight, necessitating dietary supplementation of vitamin D. Mushrooms have the advantages that they are the only source of vitamin D in the produce aisle and they are one of the few nonfortified food sources. Here, we review the current literature on enhancement of the vitamin D content in mushrooms and literature evidence on the bioavailability of vitamin D in humans and animals after ingesting ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated mushrooms. We also present available literature on health safety after UV irradiation of mushrooms, and we discuss issues arising in the attempt to incorporate UV irradiation into the mushroom production line. © 2016 Begell House, Inc.


Odhiambo R.A.,University of Nairobi | Muthakia G.K.,Kenyatta University | Kagwanja S.M.,Chuka University
Transition Metal Chemistry | Year: 2012

Mo(NO)T p * Cl 2 (T p * = 3,5-dimethyl pyrazole) when reacted with m-functionalized Fe(III) Schiff base complexes; the Schiff base ligands being derived from condensation of 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde or salicylaldehyde with a variety of x,Ω-diamines [1,2-C 6H 4(NH 2) 2, NH 2(CH 2)nNH 2; n = 2-4] affords bimetallic complexes containing two potential reduction centers. The compounds were characterized by physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. It is shown that as the polymethylene carbon chain of the Schiff base backbone increases, the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties also change gradually. Electrochemical data show that the m-functionalized complexes reduce at potentials less cathodic than their psubstituted analogues. It is also shown that the redox potentials are solvent dependent. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012.


PubMed | Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, P.A. College and Chuka University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental monitoring and assessment | Year: 2016

The detection of antibiotics in water systems has instigated great environmental concern due to the toxicological effects associated with these compounds. Their discharge into the environment results from the ubiquity of use in medical, veterinary, and agricultural practices. Some of the effects of antibiotics include development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, making it difficult to treat diseases, variation in natural microbial communities, and enzyme activities. In this study, the first comprehensive survey of some frequently used antibiotics namely ampicillin (AMP), amoxicillin (AMX), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), chloramphenicol (CAP), and ciprofloxacin (CPF) within Lake Victoria Basin of Kenya is presented. Sludge and wastewater samples were collected from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and hospital lagoons within the study area. Samples were extracted and cleaned by solid-phase extraction, and analysis was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All wastewater samples and sludge collected contained quantifiable levels of the selected antibiotics. The highest concentrations were recorded for AMP with WWTPs and hospitals having 0.360.04 and 0.790.07g/L, respectively. In sludge samples, SMX recorded the highest concentrations of 27612ng/g. The high levels in sludge indicate the preferential partition of antibiotics onto solid phase, posing great danger to consumers of crops grown in biosolid-amended soils. The daily discharge loads of antibiotics from nine WWTPs ranged between 80.75 and 3044.9mgday(-1) with a total discharge of 6395.85mgday(-1), signifying a high potential of water resource pollution within the region. This report will aid in the assessment of the risks posed by antibiotics released into the environment.


PubMed | Egerton University and Chuka University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of medicinal mushrooms | Year: 2016

Vitamin D may have an important role in many aspects of human health, from bone fractures to prostate cancer, cardiovascular disease, neuromuscular problems, and diabetes. Vitamin D is produced in the human body by the skin after sunlight absorption, but as human lifestyles change, so does the time of exposure to sunlight, necessitating dietary supplementation of vitamin D. Mushrooms have the advantages that they are the only source of vitamin D in the produce aisle and they are one of the few nonfortified food sources. Here, we review the current literature on enhancement of the vitamin D content in mushrooms and literature evidence on the bioavailability of vitamin D in humans and animals after ingesting ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated mushrooms. We also present available literature on health safety after UV irradiation of mushrooms, and we discuss issues arising in the attempt to incorporate UV irradiation into the mushroom production line.


PubMed | University of Bonn, Central Institute for Engineering, University of Nairobi and Chuka University
Type: | Journal: Journal of trace elements in medicine and biology : organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements (GMS) | Year: 2016

A large number of medicinal plants is traditionally known in Kenya and used for treatment of various diseases, for example diabetes, where metals are supposed to be involved in pathogenesis and therapy. Therefore, detailed investigation of the concentration of a large number of metals in medicinal plants is required for improved understanding and optimisation of the therapeutic role of metals and also to exclude potentially toxic effects. Our study focused on the determination of 30 selected elements in 19 medicinal plant species each collected from 3 sampling locations in Nyamira County, Kenya. The obtained comprehensive data set showed large variability and multivariate data analysis revealed that the differences in the elemental composition were stronger dependent on the plant species than on the sampling location. In addition, hot water extractions were performed to mimic the traditional preparation of medicine from the plants. It was found that the mean extraction efficiencies were below 20% except for B, Mg, P, K, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Mo, Cd and Tl, which are mostly essential elements apart from Cd and Tl. Sequential (ultra)filtration of the extracts was applied as novel approach for molecular size-fractionation of the extracted elemental species. The results indicate more than 50% low molecular weight species (<3kDa) for Mg, Mn, Co, Ni and Zn while predominantly larger size-fractions (>3kDa up to<5m) were detected for V, Cu, Al and Fe.


PubMed | Chuka University and Nanjing University of Finance and Economics
Type: | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2015

Volatile compounds are important factors that affect the flavor quality of Flammulina velutipes, but the changes occurring during hot air drying is still unclear. To clarify the dynamic changes of flavor components during hot air drying, comprehensive flavor characterization and volatile compounds of F. velutipes were evaluated using electronic nose technology and headspace solid phase micro-extraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS), respectively. Results showed that volatile components in F. velutipes significantly changed during hot air drying according to the principal component analysis and radar fingerprint chart of electronic nose. Volatile compounds of fresh F. velutipes consisted mainly of ketones, aldehydes and alcohols, and 3-octanone was the dominant compound. Drying process could significantly decrease the relative content of ketones and promoted the generation of alcohols, acids, and esters, which became the main volatile compounds of dried F. velutipes. These may provide a theoretical basis for the formation mechanism of flavor substances in dried F. velutipes.

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