Chuka, Kenya

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Ondiek J.O.,Egerton University | Abdulrazak S.A.,Egerton University | Njoka E.N.,Chuka University
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2017

A palatability study was conducted using fifteen indigenous multipurpose tree leaf forages offered to twenty intact male Small East African Goats, 7 to 8 months and 18kg ± 2.1kg. The CP (gkg-1DM) of the best five species were: M. angolensis (321), A. senegal, (249),Z. mucronata, (200), G. bicolor, (196) and A. brevispica, (187). The NDF and ADF contents ranged from 218-601 for A. hockii and A. amara, and 160-462 for A. hockii and A. abyssinica, respectively. The palatability ranking of the forages was in the order: A. tortilis> M. angolensis> B. aegyptiaca> Z. mucronata> A. coriaria> A. Senegal> A. abyssinica> A. mellifera> A. brevispica> A. elatior> A. amara> G. bicolor> A. nilotica> B. micrantha> A. hockii. M. angolensis and Z. mucronata had OMD of 68.0 and 73.8%, respectively. M. angolensis, Z. mucronata ranked highly on the parameters studied. It is concluded that Maerua angolensis and Zizyphus mucronata being high in nutritive value and palatability, are potential protein supplements to low quality basal diets. © 2017, Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved.


Mogwasi R.,Kisii University | Zor S.,Jülich Research Center | Kariuki D.K.,University of Nairobi | Getenga M.Z.,Chuka University | Nischwitz V.,Jülich Research Center
Biological Trace Element Research | Year: 2017

This study is focusing on a novel approach to screen a large number of medicinal plants from Kenya regarding their contents and availability of selected metals potentially relevant for treatment of diabetes patients. For this purpose, total levels of zinc, chromium, manganese, and copper were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry as well as BCR sequential extraction to fractionate the elemental species in anti-diabetic medicinal plants collected from five natural locations in two sub counties in Nyamira County, Kenya. Solanum mauense had the highest zinc level of 123.0 ± 3.1 mg/kg while Warburgia ugandensis had the lowest level of 13.9 ± 0.4 mg/kg. The highest level of copper was in Bidens pilosa (29.0 ± 0.6 mg/kg) while the lowest was in Aloe vera (3.0 ± 0.1 mg/kg). Croton macrostachyus had the highest manganese level of 1630 ± 40 mg/kg while Clerodendrum myricoides had the lowest (80.2 ± 1.2 mg/kg). The highest level of chromium was in Solanum mauense (3.20 ± 0.06 mg/kg) while the lowest (0.04 ± 0.01 mg/kg) were in Clerodendrum myricoides and Warburgia ugandesis among the medicinal plants from Nyamira and Borabu, respectively. The levels of the elements were statistically different from that of other elements while the level of a given element was not statistically different in the medicinal plants from the different sub counties. Sequential extraction was performed to determine the solubility and thus estimate the bioavailability of the four investigated essential and potentially therapeutically relevant metals. The results showed that the easily bioavailable fraction (EBF) of chromium, manganese, zinc, and copper ranged from 6.7 to 13.8%, 4.1 to 10%, 2.4 to 10.2%, and 3.2 to 12.0% while the potentially bioavailable fraction (PBF) ranged from 50.1 to 67.6%, 32.2 to 48.7%, 23.0 to 41.1%, and 34.6 to 53.1%, respectively. Bidens pilosa, Croton macrostachyus, Ultrica dioica, and Solanum mauense medicinal plants used to treat diabetes by 80 % of the herbalists in Nyamira County were found to be rich in chromium, manganese, copper, and zinc. The EBF of zinc, manganese, and chromium constitutes adequate amounts recommended for daily intake not exceeding the ADI and delivered a low percentage of RDA when estimating daily intake during therapy from typically applied doses. The plants did not show any significant differences at p < 0.05 in terms of concentrations of the elements between the two study areas though the levels of the different elements were statistically significant. Another major observation was that high total levels of the metals in a given plant did not necessarily translate to high bioavailable levels, and hence the need to determine bioavailable form as it is the one accessible to the patient. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC


Wang F.,Nanjing University of Finance and Economics | Hu Q.,Nanjing University of Finance and Economics | Mugambi Mariga A.,Chuka University | Cao C.,Nanjing University of Finance and Economics | Yang W.,Nanjing University of Finance and Economics
Food Chemistry | Year: 2018

A nano packaging material containing nano Ag, nano TiO2, nano attapulgite and SiO2 was prepared, and its impact on quality of Nanjing 9108 rice at 37 °C and 85% relative humidity was studied. Effects of the packaging on ambient gases and chromatic aberration of rice were determined. Moreover, oxidation level, molds growth and flavor of rice were also analyzed. Results showed that nano packaging material had antimicrobial effects and maintained low O2 and high CO2 content in the packages. The packages thereby inhibited the growth of molds and the production of fatty acids, restrained the increase of lipase activity, and reduced the oxidation of fats and proteins. As a result, the production of yellow and white-belly rice were inhibited. Furthermore, the color and flavor of rice were maintained. Therefore, the nano-packing material could be applied for preservation of rice to improve preservation quality. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Otachi E.O.,University of Vienna | Otachi E.O.,Egerton University | Magana A.E.M.,Chuka University | Jirsa F.,University of Vienna | And 2 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2014

In Lake Naivasha, the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. 1758 was accidentally introduced from fish farms adjacent to River Malewa in 1999 and now forms the bulk of the total fish caught. Since its introduction, no study has been made on its parasitic community nor are there any reports on ectoparasites from other fish species in this lake to the best of our knowledge. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the parasitic community of C. carpio and two other commercially important fish species: Oreochromis leucostictus and Tilapia zillii. Additionally, the abundant Barbus paludinosus was included in the study. A total of 286 fish (145C. carpio, 56 O. leucostictus, 18 T. zillii, and 67 B. paludinosus) were collected during the year 2011 and examined. Ten taxa of parasites were recovered from C. carpio dominated by the monogenean Dactylogyrus minutus, occurring with a prevalence (p) of 99.3 %. Thirteen taxa of parasites were identified from O. leucostictus dominated by monogeneans Cichlidogyrus spp. (p = 91.1 %). T. zillii harbored nine taxa of parasites with the digenean Tylodelphys sp. (p = 83.3 %) being dominant and B. paludinosus harbored 11 taxa of parasites dominated by an unidentified monogenean of the genus Dactylogyrus (p = 83.6 %). C. carpio had the lowest helminth species diversity and richness while monogenetic trematodes, which have never been reported from fish in Lake Naivasha, were the most prevalent parasites recovered. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Odhiambo R.,Kenyatta University | Muthakia G.K.,Kenyatta University | Kagwanja S.M.,Chuka University
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia | Year: 2010

New complexes derived from the reaction of Mo(NO)Tp* Cl2 = Tp* = tris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl) borate with a series of manganese(II) Schiff bases have been synthesized. Characterization by UV, IR, MS and elemental analysis support their formulations. Cyclic and differential pulse voltammograms of manganese(II) Schiff base monometallic complexes exhibit one reduction peak which may be associated with the reduction of the manganese(II) center. In CH3CN solutions, the molybdenum(II)-manganese(II) bimetallic complexes showed two reversible reduction peaks which are associated with the reduction of the molybdenum and manganese centers. In CH2Cl2, only the reduction of molybdenum(II) center exhibited reversibility while the reduction of manganese(II) center was irreversible. These observations demonstrate that reduction potentials for bimetallic complexes are solvent dependent. © 2010 Chemical Society of Ethiopia.


Kamweru P.K.,Chuka University | Tindibale E.L.,Egerton University
International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms | Year: 2016

Vitamin D may have an important role in many aspects of human health, from bone fractures to prostate cancer, cardiovascular disease, neuromuscular problems, and diabetes. Vitamin D is produced in the human body by the skin after sunlight absorption, but as human lifestyles change, so does the time of exposure to sunlight, necessitating dietary supplementation of vitamin D. Mushrooms have the advantages that they are the only source of vitamin D in the produce aisle and they are one of the few nonfortified food sources. Here, we review the current literature on enhancement of the vitamin D content in mushrooms and literature evidence on the bioavailability of vitamin D in humans and animals after ingesting ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated mushrooms. We also present available literature on health safety after UV irradiation of mushrooms, and we discuss issues arising in the attempt to incorporate UV irradiation into the mushroom production line. © 2016 Begell House, Inc.


Odhiambo R.A.,University of Nairobi | Muthakia G.K.,Kenyatta University | Kagwanja S.M.,Chuka University
Transition Metal Chemistry | Year: 2012

Mo(NO)T p * Cl 2 (T p * = 3,5-dimethyl pyrazole) when reacted with m-functionalized Fe(III) Schiff base complexes; the Schiff base ligands being derived from condensation of 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde or salicylaldehyde with a variety of x,Ω-diamines [1,2-C 6H 4(NH 2) 2, NH 2(CH 2)nNH 2; n = 2-4] affords bimetallic complexes containing two potential reduction centers. The compounds were characterized by physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. It is shown that as the polymethylene carbon chain of the Schiff base backbone increases, the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties also change gradually. Electrochemical data show that the m-functionalized complexes reduce at potentials less cathodic than their psubstituted analogues. It is also shown that the redox potentials are solvent dependent. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012.


PubMed | Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, P.A. College and Chuka University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental monitoring and assessment | Year: 2016

The detection of antibiotics in water systems has instigated great environmental concern due to the toxicological effects associated with these compounds. Their discharge into the environment results from the ubiquity of use in medical, veterinary, and agricultural practices. Some of the effects of antibiotics include development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, making it difficult to treat diseases, variation in natural microbial communities, and enzyme activities. In this study, the first comprehensive survey of some frequently used antibiotics namely ampicillin (AMP), amoxicillin (AMX), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), chloramphenicol (CAP), and ciprofloxacin (CPF) within Lake Victoria Basin of Kenya is presented. Sludge and wastewater samples were collected from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and hospital lagoons within the study area. Samples were extracted and cleaned by solid-phase extraction, and analysis was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All wastewater samples and sludge collected contained quantifiable levels of the selected antibiotics. The highest concentrations were recorded for AMP with WWTPs and hospitals having 0.360.04 and 0.790.07g/L, respectively. In sludge samples, SMX recorded the highest concentrations of 27612ng/g. The high levels in sludge indicate the preferential partition of antibiotics onto solid phase, posing great danger to consumers of crops grown in biosolid-amended soils. The daily discharge loads of antibiotics from nine WWTPs ranged between 80.75 and 3044.9mgday(-1) with a total discharge of 6395.85mgday(-1), signifying a high potential of water resource pollution within the region. This report will aid in the assessment of the risks posed by antibiotics released into the environment.


PubMed | Egerton University and Chuka University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of medicinal mushrooms | Year: 2016

Vitamin D may have an important role in many aspects of human health, from bone fractures to prostate cancer, cardiovascular disease, neuromuscular problems, and diabetes. Vitamin D is produced in the human body by the skin after sunlight absorption, but as human lifestyles change, so does the time of exposure to sunlight, necessitating dietary supplementation of vitamin D. Mushrooms have the advantages that they are the only source of vitamin D in the produce aisle and they are one of the few nonfortified food sources. Here, we review the current literature on enhancement of the vitamin D content in mushrooms and literature evidence on the bioavailability of vitamin D in humans and animals after ingesting ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated mushrooms. We also present available literature on health safety after UV irradiation of mushrooms, and we discuss issues arising in the attempt to incorporate UV irradiation into the mushroom production line.


PubMed | University of Bonn, Central Institute for Engineering, University of Nairobi and Chuka University
Type: | Journal: Journal of trace elements in medicine and biology : organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements (GMS) | Year: 2016

A large number of medicinal plants is traditionally known in Kenya and used for treatment of various diseases, for example diabetes, where metals are supposed to be involved in pathogenesis and therapy. Therefore, detailed investigation of the concentration of a large number of metals in medicinal plants is required for improved understanding and optimisation of the therapeutic role of metals and also to exclude potentially toxic effects. Our study focused on the determination of 30 selected elements in 19 medicinal plant species each collected from 3 sampling locations in Nyamira County, Kenya. The obtained comprehensive data set showed large variability and multivariate data analysis revealed that the differences in the elemental composition were stronger dependent on the plant species than on the sampling location. In addition, hot water extractions were performed to mimic the traditional preparation of medicine from the plants. It was found that the mean extraction efficiencies were below 20% except for B, Mg, P, K, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Mo, Cd and Tl, which are mostly essential elements apart from Cd and Tl. Sequential (ultra)filtration of the extracts was applied as novel approach for molecular size-fractionation of the extracted elemental species. The results indicate more than 50% low molecular weight species (<3kDa) for Mg, Mn, Co, Ni and Zn while predominantly larger size-fractions (>3kDa up to<5m) were detected for V, Cu, Al and Fe.

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