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Gifu-shi, Japan

Chubu Gakuin University is a private university at Seki, Gifu, Japan. The predecessor of the school was founded in 1918. Wikipedia.

Chen H.,Gifu University | Zhou X.,Gifu University | Shoumura S.,Chubu Gakuin University | Emura S.,Gifu University | Bunai Y.,Gifu University
Osteoporosis International

We investigated age- and gender-related variation of both cortical and trabecular microstructure in human femoral neck. We found that age-related change of cortical porosity is more noticeable than that of trabecular parameter. Our data may help to gain more insight into the potential mechanism of osteoporotic femoral neck fractures. Introduction Variations in the microstructure of cortical and trabecular bone contribute to decreased bone strength. Ageand gender-related changes in cortical and trabecular microstructure of femoral neck is unclear. The aim of this study was to identify three-dimensional (3D) microstructural changes of both cortical and trabecular bone simultaneously in human femoral neck with age and gender, using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT). We hypothesized that there would be differences in age-related changes of cortical and trabecular bone for both women and men. Methods We used 56 femoral necks of 28 women and men (57-98 years of age) from a Japanese population. The subjects were chosen to give an even age and gender distribution. Both women and men were divided into three age groups: middle (57-68 years), old (72-82 years), and elderly (87-98 years) groups. We examined cortical bone specimen from the inferior sector of femoral neck and trabecular bone specimen from the middle of femoral neck using micro-CT and 3D bone analysis software. Results Cortical thickness (Ct.Th) decreased by 10-15%, cortical porosity (Ca. V/TV) almost doubled, and canal diameter (Ca.Dm) increased by 65-77% between the middle-aged and elderly groups for both women and men. The trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) decreased by around 20%; trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular number (Tb.N), and connectivity density (Conn.D) decreased; and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) and structure model index (SMI) increased with age for both women and men. As compared with women, men had higher Ct.Th and BV/TVand lower Ca.V/TVand Ca.Dm among three age groups. There was a significant inverse correlation between Ca.V.TVand BV/TV for both women and men. Conclusion Our findings indicate that Ct.Th and BV/TV decreased, and Ca.V/TV and Ca.Dm increased in femoral neck with age for both women and men. The most obvious age-related change is the increase of Ca.V/TV. The decrease of BV/TV with age is more noticeable than that of Ct.Th. This is the first study that has provided both cortical and trabecular microstructural data simultaneously in a Japanese sample. These data may help us to gain more insight into the potential mechanism of osteoporotic femoral neck fractures. © International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2009. Source

Kim Y.,National Institute of Mental Health | Tsutsumi A.,National Institute of Mental Health | Izutsu T.,National Institute of Mental Health | Kawamura N.,Gaien Mental Clinic | And 2 more authors.
British Journal of Psychiatry

Background: Although there is speculation that individuals living in the vicinity of nuclear disasters have persistent mental health deterioration due to psychological stress, few attempts have been made to examine this issue. Aims: To determine whether having been in the vicinity of the Nagasaki atomic bomb explosion in the absence of substantial exposure to radiation affected the mental health of local inhabitants more than half a century later. Method: Participants were randomly recruited from individuals who lived in the vicinity of the atomic bomb explosion in uncontaminated suburbs of Nagasaki. This sample (n = 347) was stratified by gender, age, perception of the explosion and current district of residence. Controls (n = 288) were recruited from among individuals who had moved into the area from outside Nagasaki 5-15 years after the bombing, matched for gender, age and district of residence. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of those at high risk of mental disorder based on the 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire, with a cut-off point of 5/6. Other parameters related to individual perception of the explosion, health status, life events and habits were also assessed. Results: Having been in the vicinity of the explosion was the most significant factor (OR = 5.26, 95% CI 2.56-11.11) contributing to poorer mental health; erroneous knowledge of radiological hazard showed a mild association. In the sample group, anxiety after learning of the potential radiological hazard was significantly correlated with poor mental health (P<0.05), whereas anxiety about the explosion, or the degree of perception of it, was not; 74.5% of the sample group believed erroneously that the flash of the explosion was synonymous with radiation. Conclusions: Having been in the vicinity of the atomic bomb explosion without radiological exposure continued to be associated with poorer mental health more than half a century after the event. Fear on learning about the potential radiological hazard and lack of knowledge about radiological risk are responsible for this association. Declaration of interest: None. Source

Aiba M.,University of Tsukuba | Matsui Y.,University of Tsukuba | Kikkawa T.,Chubu Gakuin University | Matsumoto T.,National Institute of Mental Health | Tachimori H.,National Institute of Mental Health
Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences

Aim: Suicide prevention is of pressing importance in Japan, and grappling with this problem necessitates clarifying the causes of suicidal ideation. The purpose of the present study was to investigate several factors influencing suicidal ideation. This was done through analyzing factors examined in prior research and accessing suicide sites. Methods: A total of 1080 randomly selected adults were asked about stress, stress release, social support sources, depression, access of suicides sites, and suicidal ideation. Results: Around 6% of men in their 20s and 30s as well as 7% of people with suicide ideations had accessed suicide sites on the web. Those with suicide ideations were more likely to access suicide sites than those without. There was no sex difference in suicide ideations. The results concerning factors influencing past-year suicide ideations revealed that there were age and sex differences in these factors. Conclusion: For men in their 20s through their 50s, accessing suicide sites influenced suicidal ideations through depression, and for women in the same age bracket, emotional support influenced suicidal ideations through depression. For men and women over the age of 60, depression strongly influenced suicidal ideations. © 2011 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology. Source

Sakai T.,Kyoto University | Matsui M.,University of Toyama | Mikami A.,Chubu Gakuin University | Malkova L.,Georgetown University | And 8 more authors.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

Developmental prolongation is thought to contribute to the remarkable brain enlargement observed in modern humans (Homo sapiens). However, the developmental trajectories of cerebral tissues have not been explored in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), even though they are our closest living relatives. To address this lack of information, the development of cerebral tissues was tracked in growing chimpanzees during infancy and the juvenile stage, using three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging and compared with that of humans and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Overall, cerebral development in chimpanzees demonstrated less maturity and a more protracted course during prepuberty, as observed in humans but not in macaques. However, the rapid increase in cerebral total volume and proportional dynamic change in the cerebral tissue in humans during early infancy, when white matter volume increases dramatically, did not occur in chimpanzees. A dynamic reorganization of cerebral tissues of the brain during early infancy, driven mainly by enhancement of neuronal connectivity, is likely to have emerged in the human lineage after the split between humans and chimpanzees and to have promoted the increase in brain volume in humans. Our findings may lead to powerful insights into the ontogenetic mechanism underlying human brain enlargement. © 2012 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved. Source

Abe K.,National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology | Ohashi A.,Chubu Gakuin University
American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine

This study aimed to examine the psychological effects of terminal care experience on nursing home staff and analyze the differences between staff who are experienced and those who are inexperienced in providing terminal care. A mailed survey was conducted in 2007.A total of 37% (N = 72) of the participants had experience in terminal care in nursing homes. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the professional efficacy (a subscale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey [MBI-GS]) and tenure (duration of service) of the experienced staff were significantly higher than those of the inexperienced staff. The high professional efficacy noted among the experienced staff suggests that the provision of terminal care in nursing homes does not necessarily lead to burnout among caregivers and may in fact serve as an important motivational factor. © The Author(s) 2011. Source

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