Gifu-shi, Japan

Chubu Gakuin University
Gifu-shi, Japan

Chubu Gakuin University is a private university at Seki, Gifu, Japan. The predecessor of the school was founded in 1918. Wikipedia.

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Chen H.,Gifu University | Zhou X.,Gifu University | Shoumura S.,Chubu Gakuin University | Emura S.,Gifu University | Bunai Y.,Gifu University
Osteoporosis International | Year: 2010

We investigated age- and gender-related variation of both cortical and trabecular microstructure in human femoral neck. We found that age-related change of cortical porosity is more noticeable than that of trabecular parameter. Our data may help to gain more insight into the potential mechanism of osteoporotic femoral neck fractures. Introduction Variations in the microstructure of cortical and trabecular bone contribute to decreased bone strength. Ageand gender-related changes in cortical and trabecular microstructure of femoral neck is unclear. The aim of this study was to identify three-dimensional (3D) microstructural changes of both cortical and trabecular bone simultaneously in human femoral neck with age and gender, using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT). We hypothesized that there would be differences in age-related changes of cortical and trabecular bone for both women and men. Methods We used 56 femoral necks of 28 women and men (57-98 years of age) from a Japanese population. The subjects were chosen to give an even age and gender distribution. Both women and men were divided into three age groups: middle (57-68 years), old (72-82 years), and elderly (87-98 years) groups. We examined cortical bone specimen from the inferior sector of femoral neck and trabecular bone specimen from the middle of femoral neck using micro-CT and 3D bone analysis software. Results Cortical thickness (Ct.Th) decreased by 10-15%, cortical porosity (Ca. V/TV) almost doubled, and canal diameter (Ca.Dm) increased by 65-77% between the middle-aged and elderly groups for both women and men. The trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) decreased by around 20%; trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular number (Tb.N), and connectivity density (Conn.D) decreased; and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) and structure model index (SMI) increased with age for both women and men. As compared with women, men had higher Ct.Th and BV/TVand lower Ca.V/TVand Ca.Dm among three age groups. There was a significant inverse correlation between Ca.V.TVand BV/TV for both women and men. Conclusion Our findings indicate that Ct.Th and BV/TV decreased, and Ca.V/TV and Ca.Dm increased in femoral neck with age for both women and men. The most obvious age-related change is the increase of Ca.V/TV. The decrease of BV/TV with age is more noticeable than that of Ct.Th. This is the first study that has provided both cortical and trabecular microstructural data simultaneously in a Japanese sample. These data may help us to gain more insight into the potential mechanism of osteoporotic femoral neck fractures. © International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2009.

Aiba M.,University of Tsukuba | Matsui Y.,University of Tsukuba | Kikkawa T.,Chubu Gakuin University | Matsumoto T.,National Institute of Mental Health | Tachimori H.,National Institute of Mental Health
Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences | Year: 2011

Aim: Suicide prevention is of pressing importance in Japan, and grappling with this problem necessitates clarifying the causes of suicidal ideation. The purpose of the present study was to investigate several factors influencing suicidal ideation. This was done through analyzing factors examined in prior research and accessing suicide sites. Methods: A total of 1080 randomly selected adults were asked about stress, stress release, social support sources, depression, access of suicides sites, and suicidal ideation. Results: Around 6% of men in their 20s and 30s as well as 7% of people with suicide ideations had accessed suicide sites on the web. Those with suicide ideations were more likely to access suicide sites than those without. There was no sex difference in suicide ideations. The results concerning factors influencing past-year suicide ideations revealed that there were age and sex differences in these factors. Conclusion: For men in their 20s through their 50s, accessing suicide sites influenced suicidal ideations through depression, and for women in the same age bracket, emotional support influenced suicidal ideations through depression. For men and women over the age of 60, depression strongly influenced suicidal ideations. © 2011 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

Kim Y.,National Institute of Mental Health | Tsutsumi A.,National Institute of Mental Health | Izutsu T.,National Institute of Mental Health | Kawamura N.,Gaien Mental Clinic | And 2 more authors.
British Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2011

Background: Although there is speculation that individuals living in the vicinity of nuclear disasters have persistent mental health deterioration due to psychological stress, few attempts have been made to examine this issue. Aims: To determine whether having been in the vicinity of the Nagasaki atomic bomb explosion in the absence of substantial exposure to radiation affected the mental health of local inhabitants more than half a century later. Method: Participants were randomly recruited from individuals who lived in the vicinity of the atomic bomb explosion in uncontaminated suburbs of Nagasaki. This sample (n = 347) was stratified by gender, age, perception of the explosion and current district of residence. Controls (n = 288) were recruited from among individuals who had moved into the area from outside Nagasaki 5-15 years after the bombing, matched for gender, age and district of residence. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of those at high risk of mental disorder based on the 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire, with a cut-off point of 5/6. Other parameters related to individual perception of the explosion, health status, life events and habits were also assessed. Results: Having been in the vicinity of the explosion was the most significant factor (OR = 5.26, 95% CI 2.56-11.11) contributing to poorer mental health; erroneous knowledge of radiological hazard showed a mild association. In the sample group, anxiety after learning of the potential radiological hazard was significantly correlated with poor mental health (P<0.05), whereas anxiety about the explosion, or the degree of perception of it, was not; 74.5% of the sample group believed erroneously that the flash of the explosion was synonymous with radiation. Conclusions: Having been in the vicinity of the atomic bomb explosion without radiological exposure continued to be associated with poorer mental health more than half a century after the event. Fear on learning about the potential radiological hazard and lack of knowledge about radiological risk are responsible for this association. Declaration of interest: None.

Sakai T.,Kyoto University | Matsui M.,University of Toyama | Mikami A.,Chubu Gakuin University | Malkova L.,Georgetown University | And 8 more authors.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2013

Developmental prolongation is thought to contribute to the remarkable brain enlargement observed in modern humans (Homo sapiens). However, the developmental trajectories of cerebral tissues have not been explored in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), even though they are our closest living relatives. To address this lack of information, the development of cerebral tissues was tracked in growing chimpanzees during infancy and the juvenile stage, using three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging and compared with that of humans and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Overall, cerebral development in chimpanzees demonstrated less maturity and a more protracted course during prepuberty, as observed in humans but not in macaques. However, the rapid increase in cerebral total volume and proportional dynamic change in the cerebral tissue in humans during early infancy, when white matter volume increases dramatically, did not occur in chimpanzees. A dynamic reorganization of cerebral tissues of the brain during early infancy, driven mainly by enhancement of neuronal connectivity, is likely to have emerged in the human lineage after the split between humans and chimpanzees and to have promoted the increase in brain volume in humans. Our findings may lead to powerful insights into the ontogenetic mechanism underlying human brain enlargement. © 2012 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

Iwata Y.,Chubu Gakuin University | Iwata Y.,Japan Science and Technology Agency
Primates | Year: 2014

In this paper, I describe the food-dropping behavior of western lowland gorillas observed in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon. I collected observational data of gorillas eating in trees, and recorded whether any individuals were positioned under the same tree. In 22 of the 24 cases of individuals being present under a tree, I observed the gorilla in a tree dropping food to the individual below. In most cases, the recipient was a silverback or an elder half-sibling of the dropper. The dropper's elder full-sibling was never a recipient. The food-dropping behavior of Moukalaba western lowland gorillas is likely due to a combination of factors: their frugivory, arboreality, large body size, and the scarcity of terrestrial herbs. It is difficult for multiple gorillas to simultaneously feed in the same tree. Under such limitations, younger gorillas face difficulties in defending their feeding patches from older individuals. Nearly 90 % of the recipients were older than the food droppers. Furthermore, food droppers were significantly younger than non-food droppers who simultaneously fed on the same tree, and most-food recipients were significantly older than least-food recipients on the ground. Food dropping may, therefore, be a tactic employed by younger gorillas to defend a feeding site from older individuals. This study suggests that food dropping may reduce feeding contest competition in a gorilla group in Moukalaba. This is a preliminary study that indicates that food dropping may be intentionally used as a way to reduce feeding competition; nevertheless, further studies are needed. © 2014 Japan Monkey Centre and Springer Japan.

Sakai T.,Kyoto University | Mikami A.,Chubu Gakuin University | Tomonaga M.,Kyoto University | Matsui M.,University of Toyama | And 7 more authors.
Current Biology | Year: 2011

A comparison of developmental patterns of white matter (WM) within the prefrontal region between humans and nonhuman primates is key to understanding human brain evolution. WM mediates complex cognitive processes and has reciprocal connections with posterior processing regions [1, 2]. Although the developmental pattern of prefrontal WM in macaques differs markedly from that in humans [3], this has not been explored in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. The present longitudinal study of magnetic resonance imaging scans demonstrated that the prefrontal WM volume in chimpanzees was immature and had not reached the adult value during prepuberty, as observed in humans but not in macaques. However, the rate of prefrontal WM volume increase during infancy was slower in chimpanzees than in humans. These results suggest that a less mature and more protracted elaboration of neuronal connections in the prefrontal portion of the developing brain existed in the last common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans, and that this served to enhance the impact of postnatal experiences on neuronal connectivity. Furthermore, the rapid development of the human prefrontal WM during infancy may help the development of complex social interactions, as well as the acquisition of experience-dependent knowledge and skills to shape neuronal connectivity. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Mikawa K.,Chubu Gakuin University | Mikawa K.,Nagasaki University | Senjyu H.,Nagasaki University
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine | Year: 2011

The purpose of this study was to develop a standardized and externally paced field test (15-m Incremental Shuttle Walk and Run Test [15mISWRT]), incorporating an incremental and progressive structure, to assess aerobic fitness in middle-aged adults. 68 middle-aged men performed three tests in random order between one to two week intervals: 15-m ISWRT, cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX), and 1500-m fast walk. Variables evaluated were 15-m ISWRT performance (distance completed), VO2max measured by CPX, 1500-m fast walk performance (walking time), and HR response in 15-m ISWRT and 1500-m fast walk. Validity of the 15-m ISWRT was tested by comparing the associations among the 15-m ISWRT performance, VO2max and the 1500-m fast walk performance. Changes in HR response during the 15-m ISWRT and the 1500-m fast walk were also compared. Correlations between each variable were as follows: the correlation between 15-m ISWRT performance and VO2max was very high, r = 0.86 (p < 0.01), the correlation between the 1500-m fast walk and VO2max was r = -0.51 (p < 0.01). HR response during the 15-m ISWRT gently increased initially, whereas HR response during the 1500-m fast walk rapidly increased from the start. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the 15-m ISWRT is valid and safe for evaluating VO2max in middle-aged adults. ©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine.

Saito A.,Chubu Gakuin University | Hayashi M.,Kyoto University | Takeshita H.,University of Shiga Prefecture | Matsuzawa T.,Kyoto University
Child Development | Year: 2014

To examine the evolutional origin of representational drawing, two experiments directly compared the drawing behavior of human children and chimpanzees. The first experiment observed free drawing after model presentation, using imitation task. From longitudinal observation of humans (N = 32, 11-31 months), the developmental process of drawing until the emergence of shape imitation was clarified. Adult chimpanzees showed the ability to trace a model, which was difficult for humans who had just started imitation. The second experiment, free drawing on incomplete facial stimuli, revealed the remarkable difference between two species. Humans (N = 57, 6-38 months) tend to complete the missing parts even with immature motor control, whereas chimpanzees never completed the missing parts and instead marked the existing parts or traced the outlines. Cognitive characteristics may affect the emergence of representational drawings. Child Development © 2014 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

Abe K.,National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology | Ohashi A.,Chubu Gakuin University
American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine | Year: 2011

This study aimed to examine the psychological effects of terminal care experience on nursing home staff and analyze the differences between staff who are experienced and those who are inexperienced in providing terminal care. A mailed survey was conducted in 2007.A total of 37% (N = 72) of the participants had experience in terminal care in nursing homes. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the professional efficacy (a subscale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey [MBI-GS]) and tenure (duration of service) of the experienced staff were significantly higher than those of the inexperienced staff. The high professional efficacy noted among the experienced staff suggests that the provision of terminal care in nursing homes does not necessarily lead to burnout among caregivers and may in fact serve as an important motivational factor. © The Author(s) 2011.

Mikawa K.,Nagasaki University | Mikawa K.,Chubu Gakuin University | Yano Y.,Nagasaki University | Senjyu H.,Nagasaki University
International Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study was to investigate the reproducibility and utility of a standardised and externally paced field test (15-m Incremental Shuttle Walk and Run Test [15 mISWRT]) to assess aerobic fitness in middle-aged adults. 14 middle-aged participants performed the 15-m ISWRT 3 times within one week (Test 1, Test 2, Test 3). Reproducibility of the 15-m ISWRT was tested by comparing 15-m ISWRT performance (distance completed), HR and VOfor each test. The utility of the 15-m ISWRT for evaluating VOover a wide range in middle-aged adults was tested by comparing the range of VOobtained from the portable expired gas analyzer with the VOreference values and ranges for health promotion published by Japan's Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. A multiple comparison of distance completed in the 15-m ISWRT Test 1, Test 2, and Test 3 found no significant difference between Test 2 and Test 3. The ICC was 0.99 for Test 2 vs. Test 3. VOmeasured from the 15-m ISWRT in Test 3 had a minimum value of 22.8 ml/kg/min and a maximum value of 38.7 ml/kg/min. In conclusion, the 15-m ISWRT is reliable and useful for evaluating VOin middle-aged adults.

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