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De Leval L.,C.H.U. Sart Tilman | Lim G.S.D.,National University of Singapore | Waltregny D.,C.H.U. Sart Tilman | Oliva E.,Massachusetts General Hospital
American Journal of Surgical Pathology | Year: 2010

Background: Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCTs) are rare neoplasms thought to be of putative endometrial stromal origin and solely composed of sex cord elements. Our study aimed to delineate the immunophenotype of these tumors and to verify whether their morphology reflects true sex cord-like differentiation. DESIGN: Representative paraffin blocks from 12 UTROSCTs were selected after confirmation of the diagnosis. Cords and/or trabeculae were seen in all tumors, whereas tubules, diffuse areas, and a retiform pattern were present in 9, 6, and 2 cases, respectively. Tumors were stained for sex cord (inhibin, calretinin, WT1, and melan-A), epithelial (KL1 and epithelial membrane antigen), and smooth muscle markers (smooth muscle actin, desmin, smooth muscle myosin heavy chain, h-caldesmon, and histone deacetylase-8), CD10, HMB45, S100, and CD117. Intensity and percentage of staining were recorded. Results: Six out of 12 tumors were positive for sex cord markers (inhibin 3 of 12, calretinin 4 of 12, WT1 4 of 12, and melan-A 3 of 11) with 4 tumors coexpressing more than one marker. Half of the UTROSCTs showed positivity for KL1, with 2 tumors coexpressing epithelial membrane antigen. All but one tumor expressed one or more smooth muscle markers, with smooth muscle actin, desmin and histone deacetylase-8 being most commonly expressed. CD10 was positive in 6 of 12 tumors, CD117 in 4 of 12, and S100 in 2 of 11 tumors, whereas HMB45 was negative in 11 tumors tested. CONCLUSIONS: UTROSCTs have a diverse immunohistochemical profile often coexpressing sex cord, epithelial, and smooth muscle markers. The expression of smooth muscle markers in these tumors does not imply a smooth muscle origin as endometrial and sex cord stromal tumors are not infrequently positive for these markers. Positivity for sex cord markers supports a true sex cord/steroid phenotype. Although the immunohistochemical profile of these tumors overlaps with that of endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like differentiation as well as ovarian sex cord stromal tumors, the origin of UTROSCT remains uncertain. © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Hollevoet K.,Ghent University | Nackaerts K.,University Hospital Gasthuisberg | Thimpont J.,Occupational Diseases Fund | Germonpre P.,University of Antwerp | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2010

Rationale: Soluble mesothelin (SM) is currently the reference serum biomarker of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Megakaryocyte potentiating factor (MPF), which originates from the same precursor protein, is potentially more sensitive, yet lacks validation. Objectives: To analyze the diagnostic performance of MPF as anMPM biomarker and compare this performance with SM. Methods: A total of 507 participants were enrolled in six cohorts: healthy control subjects (n = 101), healthy asbestos-exposed individuals (n589), andpatients with benign asbestos-related disease (n5123), benign respiratory disease (n=46), lung cancer (n=63), and MPM (n = 85). Sera were analyzed for SM and MPF levels using the Mesomark and Human MPF ELISA kit, respectively. Measurements and Main Results: SM and MPF levels differed signifi-cantly between patients with MPM and participants from each other cohort (P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis did not reveal a significant difference between both markers in area under curve (AUC) for distinguishing MPM from all cohorts jointly (SM = 0.871, MPF = 0.849; P = 0.28). At 95% specificity, SM and MPF had a sensitivity of 64% (cutoff = 2.00 nmol/L) and 68% (cutoff = 12.38 ng/ml), respectively. Combining both markers did not improve the diagnostic performance. Conclusions: Inthis prospective multicenter study,MPFis validated as a highly performant MPM biomarker. The similar AUC values of SM and MPF, together with the limited difference in sensitivity, show that both serum biomarkers have an equivalent diagnostic performance.


Klareskog L.,Karolinska University Hospital | Gaubitz M.,Kooperatives Rheumazentrum Munster | Rodriguez-Valverde V.,University of Cantabria | Malaise M.,CHU Sart Tilman | And 2 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology | Year: 2011

Objective: To evaluate long-term safety and efficacy of etanercept (ETN) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) without concomitant disease-modifying antirheumatic drug therapy. Methods: A total of 549 patients enrolled in this 5-year, open-label extension after completing 1 of 2 randomised controlled studies; all patients received ETN 25 mg twice weekly during the extension. Safety assessments included physical exams, adverse events (AEs), vital signs, laboratory tests, and autoantibody evaluations. Key efficacy endpoints included numbers of responders achieving the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria, low disease activity scores, and disease remission. Results: Three hundred and eight (56%) patients completed the 5-year extension study. Total ETN exposure, including that received during the double-blind studies was 2212 patient-years. Withdrawals for efficacyand safety-related reasons were 12% and 19%, respectively. The most common AE was upper respiratory infection (44%). Rates of serious infections decreased over the 5-year period; one case of suspected tuberculosis was reported. Rates of malignancies remained generally consistent during the 5-year period. There were no reports of demyelinating disease, serious blood dyscrasias, or opportunistic infections. The relationship between autoantibody titres and clinical events was not statistically significant. Less than 5% of patients tested positive for anti-etanercept antibodies and all antibodies were non-neutralising. After 5 years, ACR 20, 50, and 70 response rates were 78%, 51%, and 32%, respectively; the mean percentage of patients achieving low disease activity score (DAS ≤2.4) and remission (DAS ≤1.6) were 44% and 20%, respectively. Conclusion: ETN maintained a favourable safety profile and consistent efficacy throughout the 5-year study duration. © Copyright Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 2011.


Awada A.,Free University of Colombia | Garcia A.A.,University of Southern California | Chan S.,University of Nottingham | Jerusalem G.H.M.,CHU Sart Tilman | And 14 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2013

Background: New therapeutic options are needed for patients with heavily pretreated breast cancer. Etirinotecan pegol is a long-acting topoisomerase-I inhibitor designed to provide prolonged tumour-cell exposure to SN38, the active metabolite. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of two etirinotecan pegol dosing schedules in patients with previously treated metastatic breast cancer to determine an optimum dosing schedule for phase 3 trials. Methods: In this randomised, two-stage, open-label phase 2 trial, we recruited patients aged 18 years or older who had received taxane therapy and undergone two or fewer previous chemotherapy regimens for metastatic breast cancer, with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, from 18 sites in three countries. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to etirinotecan pegol 145 mg/m2 every 14 days or every 21 days. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with a confirmed objective response as defined by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.0, analysed by intention to treat. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00802945. Findings: 70 patients (35 in each group) were randomly assigned to treatment between Feb 17, 2009 and April 13, 2010. Of the 70 patients, 20 (29%; 95% CI 18·4-40·6) achieved an objective response (two [3%] had a complete response and 18 [26%] had a partial response). Ten patients on the 14-day schedule achieved an objective response (29%; 95% CI 14·6-46·3; eight partial responses, two complete responses) as did ten on the 21-day schedule (29%; 95% CI 14·6-46·3; all partial responses). The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events were delayed diarrhoea (seven [20%] of 35 patients on the 14-day schedule vs eight [23%] of 35 patients on the 21-day schedule), fatigue (five [14%] vs three [9%]), neutropenia (four [11%] vs four [11%]), and dehydration (three [9%] vs four [11%]); 14 [20%] patients discontinued treatment because of drug-related toxicity. There were two possible drug-related deaths (acute renal failure and septic shock) in the 14-day group; other drug-related serious adverse events reported by more than one patient included ten [14%] patients with diarrhoea (six [17%] patients on the 14-day schedule vs four [11%] on the 21-day schedule), six [9%] with dehydration (two [6%] vs four [11%]), two [3%] with nausea (two [6%] vs none), and two [3%] with vomiting (two [6%] vs none). Interpretation: On the basis of the overall clinical data, pharmacokinetics, and tolerability profile, etirinotecan pegol 145 mg/m2 every 21 days has been selected for a phase 3 trial against treatment of physician's choice in patients with advanced breast cancer. Funding: Nektar Therapeutics. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Hauzeur J.-P.,CHU Sart Tilman | Gangji V.,Free University of Brussels
Stem Cells International | Year: 2010

Nonunion fractures and aseptic bone necrosis are two pathological conditions having some impairment of the cellular part of the repair: a reduction of MSC and of the osteoblastic activation. Both are good candidates for cell-based therapies using stem cells. We made a review of the published human trials. Only autologous bone marrow aspirate implantation was until now used. In Nonunion, a direct injection-15 to 150ml-was made in 4 case series studies. In another, the bone marrow aspirate was concentrated before injection. The results were good. In bone necrosis, only one level 1 study was published. The results at 24 months were positive in terms of reduction of the necrosis and appearance of collapse. In 3 case series studies, a treatment with concentrated bone marrow aspirates was deemed useful with good results in 76 to 96%. These results are interesting but need confirmation by controlled studies. Copyright © 2010 Jean-Philippe Hauzeur and Valérie Gangji.


Scheen A.,Chu Sart Tilman
Expert Opinion on Drug Safety | Year: 2013

Introduction: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (gliptins) play an increasing role in the management of type 2 diabetes. Such incretin-based therapies offer some advantages over other glucose-lowering agents, but might be associated with an increased risk of acute pancreatitis. Areas covered: An extensive literature search was performed to analyze clinical cases of acute pancreatitis reported in the literature or to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), in randomized clinical trials, and in observational studies with five DPP-4 inhibitors: sitagliptin, vildagliptin, saxagliptin, alogliptin, and linagliptin. Expert opinion: An increased risk of pancreatitis has been reported in diabetic versus nondiabetic patients. Several anecdotal clinical cases of pancreatitis have been reported with sitagliptin and vildagliptin and an increased relative risk reported to the FDA with sitagliptin versus other comparators, but reporting bias cannot be excluded. In rather short-term clinical trials with well-selected diabetic patients, no increased risk of acute pancreatitis has been observed with any of the five commercialized DPP-4 inhibitors: sitagliptin, vildagliptin, saxagliptin, alogliptin, and linagliptin. Similarly, real-life cohort studies showed no increased incidence of pancreatitis with gliptins compared with other glucose-lowering agents, a finding recently challenged by a case-control study. These results must be confirmed in postmarketing surveillance programs and in ongoing large prospective trials with cardiovascular outcomes. © 2013 Informa UK, Ltd.


Mutijima E.,CHU Sart Tilman | De Maertelaer V.,Free University of Colombia | Deprez M.,CHU Sart Tilman | Malaise M.,CHU Sart Tilman | Hauzeur J.-P.,CHU Sart Tilman
Clinical Rheumatology | Year: 2014

The pathogenesis of nontraumatic osteonecrosis (ON) remains unclear. Some studies have suggested that nontraumatic ON is attributed to increased osteocytic apoptosis. To test this hypothesis, a controlled study must compare the apoptosis of osteocytes and osteoblasts in cases of ON and osteoarthritis (OA). To assess either the localized or diffuse patterns of this increased osteocytic and osteoblastic apoptosis, we evaluated both the proximal and distal regions of necrotic areas. Femoral heads resected for total hip prosthesis were included for this study. Of these, 10 were ON cases—three were induced by corticosteroids, three by alcohol abuse, one resulted from trauma, one resulted from hyperlipemia, and two were idiopathic—10 were osteoarthritis cases, and 1 from a patient suffering from a subcapital fracture. The TUNEL reaction was used to detect the apoptosis in osteoblasts and osteocytes. A semi-quantitative evaluation was conducted, at both distal and proximal areas relative to the lesions, specifically in the area surrounding the necrotic region in the osteonecrosis cases, in the eburnated bone in the osteoarthritis cases, and in the subchondral bone fracture. The apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes was statistically more frequent in the regions close to the necrotic areas in the ON group. No difference was found in the unpaired areas. In the ON group, no difference was found in terms of the etiological factors. During ON, the apoptosis of osteocytes and osteoblasts is increased proximally to the necrotic regions in the patients presenting with osteoarthritis and subcapital fractures. This increase was found not only in the corticosteroid-induced ON cases but also in the idiopathic and alcohol abuse- and trauma-induced ON cases. © 2014, Clinical Rheumatology.


Squifflet J.P.,CHU Sart Tilman
Transplantation Proceedings | Year: 2011

Before any published Belgian law, EU Directive, and/or EU Action Plan, the donor advocate was naturally a member of the transplantation team performing living kidney donation. The need of donor advocacy appeared obvious with liver living donation, which was and is still a risky procedure. Today, it is clear that the donor advocacy must not be limited to living donation but extended to brain-dead and cardiac-dead donation. Nevertheless, its complexity will need experienced persons in the field of organ donation as well as transplantation, while remembering that patients' first right is the right to donate. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Inc.


Vrijens B.,MWV Healthcare | Claeys M.J.,University of Antwerp | Legrand V.,CHU Sart Tilman | Vandendriessche E.,Astrazeneca | Van De Werf F.,University Hospitals
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Aim Twice daily dosing is often perceived as inferior to once daily dosing due to a higher likelihood of missing a dose. However, more important is the extent to which drug action is maintained when doses are delayed or missed. We compared the estimated inhibition of platelet aggregation (eIPA) for ticagrelor twice daily and clopidogrel once daily, based on their pharmacokinetic/ pharmacodynamic relationships and patient dosing history data. Methods Drug dosing histories of 5014 patients prescribed cardiovascular medications (primarily antihypertensive medicines) were extracted from an electronically compiled dosing history database. eIPA levels were simulated for 677 twice daily and 677 once daily dosing histories over a 30 day period, based on published onset/offset models for ticagrelor and clopidogrel IPA characteristics. Results While many patients treated twice daily missed at least one dose in 30 days, only 25.7% missed two consecutive doses. By comparison, 46.8% of patients treated once daily missed at least one dose. Simulations based on patient adherence over time showed that the average mean eIPA for ticagrelor twice daily remained significantly higher than for clopidogrel once daily (81.1% vs. 55.0%, P < 0.001). Ticagrelor twice daily patients had an eIPA below 10% for 0.20% of the 30 day period compared with 2.05% for clopidogrel once daily (P = 0.0001). Conclusions The projected level of platelet inhibition remained higher for ticagrelor twice daily than clopidogrel once daily, mainly due to the higher eIPA level achieved with ticagrelor and the relatively low likelihood of missing two consecutive twice daily doses. This modelling and simulation study suggests a therapeutic benefit of ticagrelor over clopidogrel when taking into account the most common dosing omissions. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.


Anatomy and electrodiagnostic testing (EDX) are closely linked. In this review about EDX of the dorsal part of the foot, we will consider systematically, for each nerve, the anatomy, with its variants, and then the available EDX techniques. The differential diagnostic of peripheral neuropathies of the dorsal side of the foot will not be detailed, but only summarized. © 2014 Springer-Verlag France.

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