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Tremblay B.L.,Laval University | Cormier H.,Laval University | Rudkowska I.,Chu Of Quebec Research Center Endocrinology And Nephrology | Lemieux S.,Laval University | And 4 more authors.
Lipids in Health and Disease | Year: 2015

Background: Fish oil-derived long-chain omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), reduce plasma triglyceride (TG) levels. Genetic factors such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in genes involved in metabolic pathways of n-3 PUFA could be responsible for well-recognized heterogeneity in plasma TG response to n-3 PUFA supplementation. Previous studies have shown that genes in the glycerophospholipid metabolism such as phospholipase A2 (PLA2) group II, IV, and VI, demonstrate changes in their expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) after n-3 PUFA supplementation. Methods: A total of 208 subjects consumed 3 g/day of n-3 PUFA for 6 weeks. Plasma lipids were measured before and after the supplementation period. Five SNPs in PLA2G2A, six in PLA2G2C, eight in PLA2G2D, six in PLA2G2F, 22 in PLA2G4A, five in PLA2G6, and nine in PLA2G7 were genotyped. The MIXED Procedure for repeated measures adjusted for age, sex, BMI, and energy intake was used in order to test whether the genotype, supplementation or interaction (genotype by supplementation) were associated with plasma TG levels. Results: The n-3 PUFA supplementation had an independent effect on plasma TG levels. Genotype effects on plasma TG levels were observed for rs2301475 in PLA2G2C, rs818571 in PLA2G2F, and rs1569480 in PLA2G4A. Genotype x supplementation interaction effects on plasma TG levels were observed for rs1805018 in PLA2G7 as well as for rs10752979, rs10737277, rs7540602, and rs3820185 in PLA2G4A. Conclusion: These results suggest that, SNPs in PLA2 genes may influence plasma TG levels during a supplementation with n-3 PUFA. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01343342. © 2015 Tremblay et al. Source


Ouellette C.,Laval University | Rudkowska I.,Chu Of Quebec Research Center Endocrinology And Nephrology | Lemieux S.,Laval University | Lamarche B.,Laval University | And 4 more authors.
Lipids in Health and Disease | Year: 2014

Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption increases low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (C) concentrations and particle size. Studies showed that individuals with large, buoyant LDL particles have decreased risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, a large inter-individual variability is observed in LDL particle size. Genetic factors may explain the variability of LDL-C concentrations and particle size after an n-3 PUFA supplementation. The monoglyceride lipase (MGLL) enzyme, encoded by the MGLL gene, plays an important role in lipid metabolism, especially lipoprotein metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate if polymorphisms (SNPs) of the MGLL gene influence the variability of LDL-C and LDL particle size in response to an n-3 PUFA supplementation. Methods. 210 subjects completed the study. They consumed 5 g/d of a fish oil supplement (1.9-2.2 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 1.1 g docosaexaenoic acid) during 6 weeks. Plasma lipids were measured before and after the supplementation period and 18 SNPs of the MGLL gene, covering 100% of common genetic variations (minor allele frequency ≥0.05), have been genotyped using TaqMan technology (Life Technologies Inc., Burlington, ON, CA). Results: Following the n-3 PUFA supplementation, 55% of subjects increased their LDL-C levels. In a model including the supplementation, genotype and supplementation*genotype effects, gene-diet interaction effects on LDL-C concentrations (rs782440, rs6776142, rs555183, rs6780384, rs6787155 and rs1466571) and LDL particle size (rs9877819 and rs13076593) were observed for the MGLL gene SNPs (p < 0.05). Conclusion: SNPs within the MGLL gene may modulate plasma LDL-C levels and particle size following an n-3 PUFA supplementation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01343342. © 2014 Ouellette et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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