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Theriault S.,Chu Of Quebec Research Center
Obstetrics and gynecology | Year: 2013

To evaluate serum folate concentration early in pregnancy and any association with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in a population exposed to folic acid supplementation and food fortification. This is a nested case-control study based on a prospective cohort of 7,929 pregnant women recruited in the Quebec City metropolitan area, including 214 participants who developed a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy and 428 normotensive participants in the control group matched for parity, multiple pregnancy, smoking status, gestational, and maternal age at inclusion, and duration of blood sample storage. Serum folate levels were measured at a mean of 14 weeks of gestation. More than 98% of the participants took folic acid or multivitamins before the end of the first trimester. Mean serum folate levels were accordingly high and there were no differences between women who further developed a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy compared with women in the control group (60.1 nmol/L compared with 57.9 nmol/L; P=.51). The proportion of participants with serum folate below the 10th percentile (less than 22.3 nmol/L) of age-matched women in our outpatient population was similar between groups (P=.66) and no participant had levels generally defined as folate deficiency (less than 10 nmol/L). In a general cohort of pregnant women benefiting from a national policy of folic acid food fortification combined with a high adherence to folic acid supplementation, serum folate levels are high and do not differ between women who develop a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy and women who remain normotensive. Further supplementation with higher doses is unlikely to be beneficial in such populations. II. Source

Gravel A.,Chu Of Quebec Research Center | Sinnett D.,University of Montreal | Flamand L.,Chu Of Quebec Research Center | Flamand L.,Laval University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Introduction: Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is a ubiquitous pathogen infecting nearly 100% of the human population. Of these individuals, between 0.2% and 1% of them carry chromosomally-integrated HHV-6 (ciHHV-6). The biological consequences of chromosomal integration by HHV-6 remain unknown. Objective: To determine and compare the frequency of ciHHV-6 in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia to healthy blood donors. Methodology: A total of 293 DNA samples from children with pre-B (n = 255), pre-pre-B (n = 4), pre-T (n = 26) and undetermined (n = 8) leukemia were analyzed for ciHHV-6 by quantitative TaqMan PCR (QPCR) using HHV-6 specific primers and probe. As control, DNA samples from 288 healthy individuals were used. Primers and probe specific to the cellular GAPDH gene were used to estimate integrity and DNA content. Results: Out of 293 DNA samples from the leukemic cohort, 287 contained amplifiable DNA. Of these, only 1 (0.35%) contained ciHHV-6. Variant typing indicates that the ci-HHV-6 corresponds to variant A. None of the 288 DNA samples from healthy individuals contained ciHHV-6. Conclusion: The frequency of ciHHV-6 in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia is similar (p = 0.5) to that of healthy individuals. These results suggest that acute lymphoblastic leukemia does not originate as a consequence to integration of HHV-6 within the chromosomes. © 2013 Gravel et al. Source

Da Silva M.S.,Chu Of Quebec Research Center | Rudkowska I.,Chu Of Quebec Research Center
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2015

Dairy products contain milk fat, proteins, minerals, vitamin D, and other bioactive nutrients that have the potential to contribute to the association observed between increased dairy intake and a decreased risk of inflammation. The objective of this paper is to review the role of dairy bioactive molecules including dairy fat, proteins, micronutrients, and vitamins on inflammation markers in adipose, macrophage, and vascular tissues, which play a key role in the regulation of inflammation. A review was conducted to identify current scientific literature on dairy nutrients and inflammation in cell studies published until November 2014. The majority of saturated fatty acids (FAs) activate proinflammatory markers. Therefore, other dairy FAs or components may offset these harmful effects. Protein and amino acid composition of dairy products may have anti-inflammatory action. Magnesium may have beneficial effects on inflammatory profile; on the contrary, studies on vitamin D demonstrate conflicting results. In conclusion, numerous studies assessed the effects of individual or mixtures of FAs on inflammatory markers; yet, there is far less research on the effects of other dairy bioactive nutrients. The exact bioactive molecule or combination of these molecules in dairy products, which underlies the inverse association between dairy intake and inflammation remains to be elucidated. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Genois M.-M.,Chu Of Quebec Research Center | Genois M.-M.,Laval University | Masson J.-Y.,Chu Of Quebec Research Center | Masson J.-Y.,Laval University
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2014

Extrachromosomal DNA amplification is frequent in the protozoan parasite Leishmania selected for drug resistance. The extrachromosomal amplified DNA is either circular or linear, and is formed at the level of direct or inverted homologous repeated sequences that abound in the Leishmania genome. The RAD51 recombinase plays an important role in circular amplicons formation, but the mechanism by which linear amplicons are formed is unknown. We hypothesized that the Leishmania infantum DNA repair protein MRE11 is required for linear amplicons following rearrangements at the level of inverted repeats. The purified LiMRE11 protein showed both DNA binding and exonuclease activities. Inactivation of the LiMRE11 gene led to parasites with enhanced sensitivity to DNA damaging agents. The MRE11−/−parasites had a reduced capacity to form linear amplicons after drug selection, and the reintroduction of an MRE11 allele led to parasites regaining their capacity to generate linear amplicons, but only when MRE11 had an active nuclease activity. These results highlight a novel MRE11-dependent pathway used by Leishmania to amplify portions of its genome to respond to a changing environment. © 2014 Laffitte et al. Source

Da Silva M.S.,Chu Of Quebec Research Center | Rudkowska I.,Chu Of Quebec Research Center
Maturitas | Year: 2016

An antioxidant-rich diet has been shown to reduce the incidence of diet-induced metabolic diseases, such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular conditions, and contributes to healthy ageing. Yet, clinical trials investigating common dietary antioxidants, such as vitamins, have often failed to find a significant lowering effect on markers of oxidative stress. This review examines the latest clinical evidence on whether three novel potential antioxidant foods-fish omega-3 fatty acids, red wine and dairy products-can affect the oxidative status of healthy individuals. Clinical studies have reported heterogeneous results regarding the effect of fish oil, red wine and dairy products on oxidative stress. However, numerous studies have suggested that omega-3, red wine and dairy products may lower lipid peroxidation, a known trigger of cardiovascular disease, without affecting the oxidative status of healthy individuals. Overall, this review suggests that consumption of 1-2. g/day of omega-3, a moderate red wine intake (200-400. ml/day) or 2-3 portions/day of dairy products within a healthy diet exert beneficial effects on oxidative markers. Further investigation to ascertain these effects should focus on the antioxidant effects of long-term omega-3 supplementation, and of intake of dealcoholized red wine or higher dairy product consumption. © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

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