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Liège, Belgium

Stergiopoulou T.,CHU Liege | Walsh T.J.,Cornell University
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2015

Introduction: Antifungal resistance is an emerging problem that increases morbidity and mortality in immunosuppressed pediatric patients, who suffer from invasive fungal diseases. Optimal pharmacological management is critical for the successful treatment of invasive fungal infections by resistant strains. Areas covered: This paper reviews the mechanisms of resistance of different classes of antifungal agents and the current understanding of pediatric antifungal pharmacology for overcoming antifungal resistance in children based on laboratory and clinical studies in the English literature. The therapeutic choices against fungal pathogens with intrinsic or acquired resistance are further reviewed. Expert opinion: There is a paucity of data in the pediatric population regarding the epidemiology of the resistant organisms to different antifungal agents. It is also unknown if there are more prevalent molecular mechanisms that promote antifungal resistance. Selection and dosages of the most effective antifungal agent for overcoming the antifungal resistance is crucial. However, there are limited studies guiding the optimal dosage and duration of treatment for management of emergent antifungal resistance. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the optimal pharmacology of the current antifungal agents against resistant organisms and to advance the development of new antifungal agents. © 2015 Informa UK, Ltd.

Stergiopoulou T.,CHU Liege | Walsh T.J.,Weill Cornell Medical Center
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2016

There is an increased recovery of Fusobacterium necrophorum from cases of otitis media and mastoiditis in the pediatric population. These infections may be highly severe, causing local osteomyelitis, bacteremia, and Lemierre’s syndrome. The severity and difficulties in providing optimal treatment for these infections may be especially difficult in this age group due to immunological immaturity and delayed presentation. In this review of literature, we present and analyze the clinical presentation, management, and outcome of otic infections caused by F. necrophorum in infants and young toddlers less than 2 years old. Search in Pubmed was conducted for reported cases in the English literature for the time period of the last 50 years. Twelve well-described cases were retrieved with F. necrophorum otitis and mastoiditis and complications reported in all cases. Treatment included both intravenously with antimicrobial agents (beta lactams plus metronidazole) and mastoidectomy. Lemierre’s syndrome and Lemierre’s syndrome variants developed in 60 % of the patients. Dissemination of the infection as distal osteomyelitis and septic shock were also reported. The outcome was favorable in all the cases. Otitis and mastoiditis infections in children less then 2 years old are invasive infections, and severe complications can occur. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

We describe a case of retinitis pigmentosa, associated with bronchiectasis, as the first sign of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). Only a few cases were described in the literature and the association of both diseases is not obvious at first sight, although a common ciliary dysfunction of both respiratory epithelium and photoreceptors of the retina seems to be the common factor. It is important to recognize the association and to question patients with retinitis pigmentosa about their respiratory functions, because an early diagnosis of PCD can prevent recurrent infections and development of bronchiectasis with daily physiotherapy.

Louis E.,CHU Liege
Current Opinion in Gastroenterology | Year: 2015

Purpose of review: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) represent a heterogeneous entity whose diagnosis is sometimes difficult to ascertain. Many pathological processes may mimic IBD phenotypes. Among the classical differential diagnoses are enteric infections and infestations as well as drug toxicity. However, recently, more specific differential diagnoses have been included, including monogenic causes of gastrointestinal tract inflammation, particularly in young children. The purpose of the present review is to describe the differential diagnosis of IBD, putting it in a specific clinical and demographic context. This differential diagnosis will be discussed specifically for young children, elderly patients, and immunosuppressed patients. Recent findings: We will focus on the most recent findings and concepts, including monogenic diseases in young children, diverticular disease-associated colitis in elderly patients, and toxic colitis in patients receiving immunosuppressants such as mycophenolate mofetil or biologics such as ipilimumab. Summary: The aim of this review is to alert the clinician dealing with IBD, concerning a series of specific diagnoses that should be recognized because they may require specific treatment, different from the ones of classical idiopathic IBD. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Deflandre E.,Clinique Saint Luc and Cabinet Medical ASTES | Degey S.,Cabinet Medical ASTES | Brichant J.-F.,CHU Liege | Poirrier R.,CHU Liege | Bonhomme V.,CHR Citadelle
Anesthesia and Analgesia | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common and underdiagnosed entity that favors perioperative morbidity. Several anatomical characteristics predispose to OSA. We developed a new clinical score that would detect OSA based on the patient's morphologic characteristics only. METHODS: Patients (n = 149) scheduled for an overnight polysomnography were included. Their morphologic metrics were compared, and combinations of them were tested for their ability to predict at least mild, moderate-to-severe, or severe OSA, as defined by an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) >5, >15, or >30 events/h. This ability was calculated using Cohen κ coefficient and prediction probability. RESULTS: The score with best prediction abilities (DES-OSA score) considered 5 variables: Mallampati score, distance between the thyroid and the chin, body mass index, neck circumference, and sex. Those variables were weighted by 1, 2, or 3 points. DES-OSA score >5, 6, and 7 were associated with increased probability of an AHI >5, >15, or >30 events/h, respectively, and those thresholds had the best Cohen κ coefficient, sensitivities, and specificities. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the area under the curve was 0.832 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.762-0.902), 0.805 (95% CI, 0.734-0.876), and 0.834 (95% CI, 0.757-0.911) for DES-OSA at predicting an AHI >5, >15, and >30 events/h, respectively. With the aforementioned thresholds, corresponding sensitivities (95% CI) were 82.7% (74.5-88.7), 77.1% (66.9-84.9), and 75% (61.0-85.1), and specificities (95% CI) were 72.4% (54.0-85.4), 73.2% (60.3-83.1), and 76.9% (67.2-84.4). Validation of DES-OSA performance in an independent sample yielded highly similar results. CONCLUSIONS: DES-OSA is a simple score for detecting OSA patients. Its originality relies on its morphologic nature. Derived from a European population, it may prove useful in a preoperative setting, but it has still to be compared with other screening tools in a general surgical population and in other ethnic groups. © 2016 International Anesthesia Research Society.

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