CHU Liege

Liège, Belgium

CHU Liege

Liège, Belgium
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Stergiopoulou T.,CHU Liege | Walsh T.J.,Cornell University
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2015

Introduction: Antifungal resistance is an emerging problem that increases morbidity and mortality in immunosuppressed pediatric patients, who suffer from invasive fungal diseases. Optimal pharmacological management is critical for the successful treatment of invasive fungal infections by resistant strains. Areas covered: This paper reviews the mechanisms of resistance of different classes of antifungal agents and the current understanding of pediatric antifungal pharmacology for overcoming antifungal resistance in children based on laboratory and clinical studies in the English literature. The therapeutic choices against fungal pathogens with intrinsic or acquired resistance are further reviewed. Expert opinion: There is a paucity of data in the pediatric population regarding the epidemiology of the resistant organisms to different antifungal agents. It is also unknown if there are more prevalent molecular mechanisms that promote antifungal resistance. Selection and dosages of the most effective antifungal agent for overcoming the antifungal resistance is crucial. However, there are limited studies guiding the optimal dosage and duration of treatment for management of emergent antifungal resistance. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the optimal pharmacology of the current antifungal agents against resistant organisms and to advance the development of new antifungal agents. © 2015 Informa UK, Ltd.

The Surgical Pleth Index (SPI) is proposed as a means to assess the balance between noxious stimulation and the anti-nociceptive effects of anaesthesia. In this study, we compared SPI, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) as a means of assessing this balance. We studied a standard stimulus [head-holder insertion (HHI)] and varying remifentanil concentrations (CeREMI) in a group of patients undergoing neurosurgery. Patients receiving target-controlled infusions were randomly assigned to one of the three CeREMI (2, 4, or 6 ng m1), whereas propofol target was fixed at 3 μg ml1. Steady state for both targets was achieved before HHI. Intravascular volume status (IVS) was evaluated using respiratory variations in arterial pressure. Prediction probability (Pk) and ordinal regression were used to assess SPI, MAP, and HR performance at indicating CeREMI, and the influence of IVS and chronic treatment for high arterial pressure, as possible confounding factors. The maximum SPI, MAP, or HR observed after HHI correctly indicated CeREMI in one of the two patients [accurate prediction rate (APR)=0.5]. When IVS and chronic treatment for high arterial pressure were taken into account, the APR was 0.6 for each individual variable and 0.8 when all of them predicted the same CeREMI. That increase in APR paralleled an increase in Pk from 0.63 to 0.89. SPI, HR, and MAP are of comparable value at gauging noxious stimulation-CeREMI balance. Their interpretation is improved by taking account of IVS, treatment for chronic high arterial pressure, and concordance between their predictions.

Gillain S.,CHU Liege | Petermans J.,CHU Liege
Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine | Year: 2013

Objectives: For several years, the concept of "physiological senile gait" has been strongly contested and seems to be associated with abnormal gait. Indeed, some changes characteristic of senile gait appear early on in subjects with neurodegenerative pathologies. The aim of this article was to determine how recent contributions can improve the study of gait in old populations. This paper is a thematic review of recent contributions from medical imaging techniques as well as instrumental gait analysis techniques in older adults. This article did not focus on Parkinson's disease or other specific diseases bearing certain gait disturbances, since they belong to literature focusing on these particular disorders. Material and methods: This work was not intended as a systematic review but only as a thematic one conducted by geriatricians in order review the recent literature in order to better apprehend how new technics could be implemented within their clinical practice. Articles were selected in online Medline and Cochrane Library databases, and some were previously identified by the authors. Results: This paper highlights the most recent contributions in magnetic resonance imaging, functional magnetic resonance imagery, positron emission tomography and instrumental gait analyzing devices better understanding the underlying gait mechanisms in elderly populations. Conclusions: This thematic review suggests that gait could be considered as a marker of "successful aging". Its evaluation associated to longitudinal follow-up could be useful to predict cognitive and functional changes in frail older adults. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Stergiopoulou T.,CHU Liege | Walsh T.J.,Weill Cornell Medical Center
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2016

There is an increased recovery of Fusobacterium necrophorum from cases of otitis media and mastoiditis in the pediatric population. These infections may be highly severe, causing local osteomyelitis, bacteremia, and Lemierre’s syndrome. The severity and difficulties in providing optimal treatment for these infections may be especially difficult in this age group due to immunological immaturity and delayed presentation. In this review of literature, we present and analyze the clinical presentation, management, and outcome of otic infections caused by F. necrophorum in infants and young toddlers less than 2 years old. Search in Pubmed was conducted for reported cases in the English literature for the time period of the last 50 years. Twelve well-described cases were retrieved with F. necrophorum otitis and mastoiditis and complications reported in all cases. Treatment included both intravenously with antimicrobial agents (beta lactams plus metronidazole) and mastoidectomy. Lemierre’s syndrome and Lemierre’s syndrome variants developed in 60 % of the patients. Dissemination of the infection as distal osteomyelitis and septic shock were also reported. The outcome was favorable in all the cases. Otitis and mastoiditis infections in children less then 2 years old are invasive infections, and severe complications can occur. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

We describe a case of retinitis pigmentosa, associated with bronchiectasis, as the first sign of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). Only a few cases were described in the literature and the association of both diseases is not obvious at first sight, although a common ciliary dysfunction of both respiratory epithelium and photoreceptors of the retina seems to be the common factor. It is important to recognize the association and to question patients with retinitis pigmentosa about their respiratory functions, because an early diagnosis of PCD can prevent recurrent infections and development of bronchiectasis with daily physiotherapy.

Lambert G.,University of Liège | Brichant J.F.,CHU Liege | Hartstein G.,CHU Liege | Bonhomme V.,University of Liège | Dewandre P.Y.,University of Liège
Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica | Year: 2014

Preeclampsia was formerly defined as a multisystemic disorder characterized by new onset of hypertension (i.e. systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg) and proteinuria (> 300 mg/24 h) arising after 20 weeks of gestation in a previously normotensive woman. Recently, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has stated that proteinuria is no longer required for the diagnosis of preeclampsia. This complication of pregnancy remains a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Clinical signs appear in the second half of pregnancy, but initial pathogenic mechanisms arise much earlier. The cytotrophoblast fails to remodel spiral arteries, leading to hypoperfusion and ischemia of the placenta. The fetal consequence is growth restriction. On the maternal side, the ischemic placenta releases factors that provoke a generalized maternal endothelial dysfunction. The endothelial dysfunction is in turn responsible for the symptoms and complications of preeclampsia. These include hypertension, proteinuria, renal impairment, thrombocytopenia, epigastric pain, liver dysfunction, hemolysis-elevated liver enzymes-low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome. visual disturbances, headache, and seizures. Despite a better understanding of preeclampsia pathophysiology and maternal hemodynamic alterations during preeclampsia, the only curative treatment remains placenta and fetus delivery. At the time of diagnosis, the initial objective is the assessment of disease severity. Severe hypertension (SBP ≥ 160 mm Hg and/or DBP ≥ 110 mmHg), thrombocytopenia < 100.000/μL. liver transaminases above twice the normal values, HELLP syndrome, renal failure, persistent epigastric or right upper quadrant pain, visual or neurologic symptoms, and acute pulmonary edema are all severity criteria. Medical treatment depends on the severity of preeclampsia, and relies on antihypertensive medications and magnesium sulfate. Medical treatment does not alter the course of the disease, but aims at preventing the occurrence of intracranial hemorrhages and seizures. The decision of terminating pregnancy and perform delivery is based on gestational age, maternal and fetal conditions, and severity of preeclampsia. Delivery is proposed for patients with preeclampsia without severe features after 37 weeks of gestation and in case of severe preeclampsia after 34 weeks of gestation. Between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation, conservative management of severe preeclampsia may be considered in selected patients. Antenatal corticosteroids should be administered to less than 34 gestation week preeclamptic women to promote fetal lung maturity. Termination of pregnancy should be discussed if severe preeclampsia occurs before 24 weeks of gestation. Maternal end organ dysfunction and non-reassuring tests of fetal well-being are indications for delivery at any gestational age. Neuraxial analgesia and anesthesia are, in the absence of thrombocytopenia, strongly considered as first line anesthetic techniques in preeclamptic patients. Airway edema and tracheal intubation-induced elevation in blood pressure are important issues of general anesthesia in those patients. The major adverse outcomes associated with preeclampsia are related to maternal central nervous system hemorrhage, hepatic rupture, and renal failure. Preeclampsia is also a risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease later in life, and therefore mandates long-term follow-up. © 2014 Acta Anæsthesiologica Belgica.

Louis E.,CHU Liege
Current Opinion in Gastroenterology | Year: 2015

Purpose of review: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) represent a heterogeneous entity whose diagnosis is sometimes difficult to ascertain. Many pathological processes may mimic IBD phenotypes. Among the classical differential diagnoses are enteric infections and infestations as well as drug toxicity. However, recently, more specific differential diagnoses have been included, including monogenic causes of gastrointestinal tract inflammation, particularly in young children. The purpose of the present review is to describe the differential diagnosis of IBD, putting it in a specific clinical and demographic context. This differential diagnosis will be discussed specifically for young children, elderly patients, and immunosuppressed patients. Recent findings: We will focus on the most recent findings and concepts, including monogenic diseases in young children, diverticular disease-associated colitis in elderly patients, and toxic colitis in patients receiving immunosuppressants such as mycophenolate mofetil or biologics such as ipilimumab. Summary: The aim of this review is to alert the clinician dealing with IBD, concerning a series of specific diagnoses that should be recognized because they may require specific treatment, different from the ones of classical idiopathic IBD. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Deflandre E.,Clinique Saint Luc and Cabinet Medical ASTES | Degey S.,Cabinet Medical ASTES | Brichant J.-F.,CHU Liege | Poirrier R.,CHU Liege | Bonhomme V.,CHR Citadelle
Anesthesia and Analgesia | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common and underdiagnosed entity that favors perioperative morbidity. Several anatomical characteristics predispose to OSA. We developed a new clinical score that would detect OSA based on the patient's morphologic characteristics only. METHODS: Patients (n = 149) scheduled for an overnight polysomnography were included. Their morphologic metrics were compared, and combinations of them were tested for their ability to predict at least mild, moderate-to-severe, or severe OSA, as defined by an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) >5, >15, or >30 events/h. This ability was calculated using Cohen κ coefficient and prediction probability. RESULTS: The score with best prediction abilities (DES-OSA score) considered 5 variables: Mallampati score, distance between the thyroid and the chin, body mass index, neck circumference, and sex. Those variables were weighted by 1, 2, or 3 points. DES-OSA score >5, 6, and 7 were associated with increased probability of an AHI >5, >15, or >30 events/h, respectively, and those thresholds had the best Cohen κ coefficient, sensitivities, and specificities. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the area under the curve was 0.832 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.762-0.902), 0.805 (95% CI, 0.734-0.876), and 0.834 (95% CI, 0.757-0.911) for DES-OSA at predicting an AHI >5, >15, and >30 events/h, respectively. With the aforementioned thresholds, corresponding sensitivities (95% CI) were 82.7% (74.5-88.7), 77.1% (66.9-84.9), and 75% (61.0-85.1), and specificities (95% CI) were 72.4% (54.0-85.4), 73.2% (60.3-83.1), and 76.9% (67.2-84.4). Validation of DES-OSA performance in an independent sample yielded highly similar results. CONCLUSIONS: DES-OSA is a simple score for detecting OSA patients. Its originality relies on its morphologic nature. Derived from a European population, it may prove useful in a preoperative setting, but it has still to be compared with other screening tools in a general surgical population and in other ethnic groups. © 2016 International Anesthesia Research Society.

Beaudart C.,University of Liège | Buckinx F.,University of Liège | Rabenda V.,University of Liège | Gillain S.,CHU Liege | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2014

Context: There is growing evidence that vitamin D plays a role on several tissues including skeletal muscle.Objective: The aim was to summarize with a meta-analysis, the effects of vitamin D supplementation on muscle function.Data Sources: Asystematic research of randomized controlled trials, performed between 1966 and January 2014 has been conducted on Medline, Cochrane Database of Systematics Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled and completed by a manual review of the literature and congressional abstracts.Study Selection: All forms and doses of vitamin D supplementation, with or without calcium supplementation, compared with placebo or control were included. Out of the 225 potentially relevant articles, 30 randomized controlled trials involving 5615 individuals (mean age: 61.1 years) met the inclusion criteria.Data Extraction: Data were extracted by two independent reviewers.Data Synthesis: Results revealed a small but significant positive effect of vitamin D supplementation on global muscle strength with a standardized mean difference (SMD) of 0.17 (P = .02). No significant effect was found on muscle mass (SMD 0.058; P = .52) or muscle power (SMD 0.057; P =.657). Results on muscle strength were significantly more important with people who presented a 25-hydroxyvitamin D level >30 nmol/L. Supplementation seems also more effective on people aged 65 years or older compared to younger subjects (SMD 0.25; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.48 vs SMD 0.03; 95% CI-0.08 to 0.14).Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation has a small positive impact on muscle strength, but additional studies are needed to define optimal treatment modalities, including dose, mode of administration, and duration. Copyright © 2014 by the Endocrine Society.

Caers J.,CHU Liege | Caers J.,University of Liège | Withofs N.,CHU Liege | Hillengass J.,University of Heidelberg | And 5 more authors.
Haematologica | Year: 2014

Multiple myeloma is the second most common hematologic malignancy and occurs most commonly in elderly patients. Almost all multiple myeloma patients develop bone lesions in the course of their disease or have evidence of bone loss at initial diagnosis. Whole-body conventional radiography remains the gold standard in the diagnostic evaluation, but computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography are increasingly used as complementary techniques in the detection of bone lesions. Moreover, the number of lesions detected and the presence of extramedullary disease give strong prognostic information. These new techniques may help to assess treatment response in solitary plasmacytoma or in multiple myeloma. In this article, we review recent data on the different imaging techniques used at diagnosis and in the assessment of treatment response, and discuss some current issues. © Ferrata Storti Foundation.

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