Sousse, Tunisia
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Tayeb W.,University of Sfax | Nakbi A.,University of Sfax | Trabelsi M.,University of Sfax | Miled A.,CHU Hached | Hammami M.,University of Sfax
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods | Year: 2012

The present study evaluated the effects of sub-acute exposure to different doses of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on rat kidney. Forty animals were divided into four equal groups and treated with different doses of 2,4-D: 0, 15, 75 and 150mg/kg body weight per day via oral gavage for 28 consecutive days. Renal function, histopathology, tissue malondialdehyde and antioxidant enzyme activities were evaluated. The results showed a significant decrease (p < 0.01) in uric acid level and an increase in plasma levels of urea and creatinine (p < 0.01) in rats administered 2,4-D at the three studied doses. The activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase were significantly affected for all treated rats, while glutathione peroxidase significantly decreased in rats exposed to 2,4-D at a dose of 150mg/kg. Through sub-acute treatment, starting from the low to the high doses of 2,4-D, there were significant increase in kidney MDA as compared to controls. The histopathological study revealed tubular damages, glomerular alterations, vascular congestion and increased number of pyknotic nuclei in kidneys of all 2,4-D treated groups. The severity of these alterations increase in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings confirm that sub-acute exposure to 2,4-D induced oxidative renal dysfunction in rats. Therefore, at higher doses, 2,4-D may be implicated in the pathogenesis of kidney failure via lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Wafa T.,University of Sfax | Amel N.,University of Sfax | Issam C.,University of Sfax | Imed C.,University of Sfax | And 2 more authors.
Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology | Year: 2011

The erythrocyte, due to its role as O2 and CO2 transporter, is under the constant exposure to reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of 2,4-D to induce oxidative stress in blood of male wistar rats. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: a control group and three treated groups receiving by gavage 15, 75 and 150mg, respectively, of 2,4-D/kg/BW/day for 28days. Results showed that 2,4-D caused significant negative changes in the investigated biochemical parameters. In fact, 2,4-D exposition strongly increases LDH, by contrast, there is a statistically significant decrease in Hgb levels. The malondialdehyde level was significantly increased in 2,4-D treated groups. Fatty acid composition of the erythrocytes was also significantly changed with 2,4-D exposure, in favor of the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme (SOD, CAT, GPx, and GR) activities in erythrocytes were significantly decreased. Thus, our results indicated the potential effects of 2,4-D to cause oxidative stress in rat erythrocytes. Therefore, at higher doses, 2,4-D may play an important role in the development of vascular disease via lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Wafa T.,University of Monastir | Nadia K.,University of Monastir | Amel N.,University of Monastir | Ikbal C.,Regional Center for Research in Horticulture and Organic Agriculture | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part B Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes | Year: 2013

In this study, a cohort of farmers from the Mateur region in the North of Tunisia, were interviewed and examined for the biochemical effects of pesticides. We studied their haematological profile, lipid parameters, serum markers of nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. We also evaluated the activities of Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and thiolactonase-paroxonase (PON). Moreover, lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were determined. The duration of pesticide use and the farmers' age were considered in the analysis. Our results revealed significant differences in some haematological parameters, in liver and kidney functions, in the lipidic status of the pesticide-exposed group. We also reported an increase in the index of incidence of cardiovascular risk in farmer populations. A significant decrease in AChE, BChE and PON levels was found among farmers. Lipid peroxidation, however, increased. The activities of SOD and CAT were remarkably elevated in farmer populations. There was a significant relation between changes in biological markers, the duration of pesticide use and the farmers' age. This study indicates that a long-term exposure to pesticides may play an important role in the development of vascular diseases via metabolic disorders of lipoproteins, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress, inhibition of BChE and decrease in thiolactonase-PON levels. © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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