Piroth L.,University of Burgundy |
Pol S.,CHU Cochin |
Lacombe K.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
Miailhes P.,Lyon University Hospital Center |
And 9 more authors.
Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2010
Background & Aims: To compare the management and the virological and serological efficacy of treatments for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in HIV positive and negative patients. Methods: Two hundred and forty-six HIV positive and 205 HIV negative consecutive patients with past or present CHB, seen in October 2008 in participating departments, were included in a multicenter study. All the data were retrospectively collected from the first visit to October 2008 through a standardized questionnaire. Results: Compared to HIV negative patients, HIV positive patients more often presented positive HBeAg (46.4% vs. 32.8%, p = 0.01), HBV genotype A (54.8% vs. 17.1%, p <0.0001), co-infection with HCV (12.4% vs. 5.9%, p = 0.0002) or HDV (12.6% vs. 2.9%, p = 0.04). HIV positive patients were more often on HBV therapy (92.7% vs. 57.1%, p <0.0001), leading to undetectable serum HBV DNA levels (71.0% vs. 44.1%, p <0.0001). In HIV positive patients, multivariate analysis showed that older age, lower initial HBV DNA levels, and longer time on HBV therapy significantly correlated with undetectable HBV DNA. No difference in efficacy was observed between tenofovir used alone or in combination. HBsAg (but not HBe) loss was more often observed in HIV positive patients, sometimes followed by HBsAg re-appearance after withdrawal of HBV treatment. Excluding the 37 HBV-HCV-co-infected patients, the last clinical presentation and liver fibrosis scores were similar in HIV positive and negative patients. Conclusions: The assessment of CHB and the efficacy of HBV therapy have improved in HIV positive patients. HIV infection did not have a negative impact on the likelihood of HBV therapeutic success. © 2010 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Llanes C.,Center National Of Reference Of La Resistance Aux Antibiotiques |
Pourcel C.,University Paris - Sud |
Richardot C.,Center National Of Reference Of La Resistance Aux Antibiotiques |
Plesiat P.,Center National Of Reference Of La Resistance Aux Antibiotiques |
And 15 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2013
Objectives: To investigate the resistance mechanisms of β-lactam-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients in France. Methods: Two-hundred-and-four P. aeruginosa CF isolates were collected in 10 French university hospitals in 2007. Their susceptibility to 14 antibiotics and their resistance mechanisms to β-lactams were investigated. Their β-lactamase contents were characterized by isoelectric focusing, PCR and enzymatic assays. Expression levels of efflux pumps and the intrinsic β-lactamase AmpC were quantified by reverse transcription real-time quantitative PCR. Genotyping was performed using multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA). The oprD genes were sequenced and compared with those of reference P. aeruginosa strains. To assess deficient OprD production, western blotting experiments were carried out on outer membrane preparations. Results: MLVA typing discriminated 131 genotypes and 47 clusters. One-hundred-and-twenty-four isolates (60.8%) displayed a susceptible phenotype to β-lactams according to EUCAST breakpoints. In the 80 remaining isolates, resistance to β-lactams resulted from derepression of intrinsic cephalosporinase AmpC (61.3%) and/or acquisition of secondary β-lactamases (13.8%). Efflux pumps were up-regulated in 88.8% of isolates and porin OprD was lost in 53.8% of isolates due to frameshifting or nonsense mutations in the oprD gene. Conclusions: β-Lactam resistance rates are quite high in CF strains of P. aeruginosa isolated in France and not really different from those reported for nosocomial strains. Development of β-lactam resistance is correlated with patient age. It results from intrinsic mechanisms sequentially accumulated by bacteria isolated from patients who have undergone repeated courses of chemotherapy. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.
Pillebout E.,CHU St Louis |
Alberti C.,University Paris Diderot |
Guillevin L.,CHU Cochin |
Ouslimani A.,Assistance Publique Hpitaux de Paris |
Thervet E.,CHU Necker
Kidney International | Year: 2010
Henoch Schönlein Purpura (HSP) is a common disease in children, usually associated with a good prognosis. In adults there are no prospective studies concerning its prognosis or treatment, especially in cases of severe visceral involvement. Here we compared steroid therapy without or with cyclophosphamide co-treatment in adults with severe HSP in a 12-month, multi-center, prospective, open-label trial that treated 54 adults with biopsy-proven HSP including proliferative glomerulonephritis and severe visceral manifestations. All received steroids; however, 25 were randomized to also receive cyclophosphamide. The primary endpoint that occurred in three patients in each group was complete disease remission defined as zero on the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score with no persistent or new clinical and/or biological vasculitis at 6 months. No patient had active visceral involvement. The secondary endpoints were renal outcome, deaths, and adverse events at 12 months. Renal function, proteinuria, safety data, incidence of diabetes, and severe infections were similar between the two groups. At the last follow-up, renal function remained stable. The small population size of our study does not permit definitive conclusions; however, we suggest that treatment of adults with severe HSP by adding cyclophosphamide provides no benefit compared with steroids alone. © 2010 International Society of Nephrology.
Management of side-effects of targeted therapies in renal cancer: Endocrine side-effects and metabolic disorders [Gestion des effets secondaires des thérapies ciblées dans le cancer du rein: Effets secondaires endocriniens et troubles métaboliques]
Caron P.,Toulouse University Hospital Center |
Gravis G.,Institute Paoli Calmettes |
Oudard S.,CHU HEGP |
Pignot G.,CHU Cochin
Bulletin du Cancer | Year: 2011
Several types of endocrine complications and metabolic disorders can occur during treatment with targeted therapies: thyroid dysfunction, hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia, etc. Thyroid dysfunctions are mainly observed with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), with a high frequency with sunitinib (18 to 85%) and sorafenib (21%). Hypothyroidism can be symptomatic with clinical signs including asthenia, constipation, cold intolerance, with elevated TSH and low free T4 levels; or subclinical with non-specific clinical signs (asthenia) with TSH less than 8-10 mIU/L and free T4 normal, and often requiring supplementation with thyroid hormones. The occurrence of thyroid dysfunction does not mean that treatment with TKI must be stopped. Thyrotoxicosis, usually transient, can precede the onset of hypothyroidism during treatment with TKI. Specialist opinion from an endocrinologist should be considered with the occurrence of thyroid dysfunction. Abnormalities in the glycaemic and lipid profile are often seen with mTOR inhibitors and require monitoring before and during the treatment, as well as a specialist opinion from an endocrinologist in the event of hyperglycaemia or dyslipidaemia. ©John Libbey Eurotext.
Flexible cystoscopes: Disinfection and microbiological surveillance practices among French urologists [Cystoscopes souples: Pratiques de désinfection et de surveillance microbiologique parmi les urologues français. Une enquête du comité d'infectiologie de l'AFU]
Malavaud S.,Toulouse University Hospital Center |
Boiteux J.-P.,CHU de Clermont Ferrand |
Coloby P.,Center Hospitalier Of Pontoise |
Bugel H.,Center hospitalier dElbeuf |
And 4 more authors.
Progres en Urologie | Year: 2012
Introduction: According to the French regulatory authorities, the highest level of disinfection must be achieved for flexible cystoscopes, as they enter a sterile cavity, the current method being peracetic acid disinfection and sterile water terminal rinsing. Material and methods: The concordance between regulations and the routine was researched using a self-administered questionnaire sent to all French urologists. Results: Responses from 78 urology units, totalling 317 urologists (26% response rate) were analysed. As a whole, 51.2% of centers followed all recommendations on disinfection. There was no microbiological surveillance in 16.6% of centers, although microbiological tests were performed in two out of three centers before using a new endoscope or when returning from maintenance. Conclusion: Improvements are needed, both in the disinfection process and the microbiological surveillance. Low temperature sterilization and the use of sterile disposable sheaths may represent an alternative. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS.