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El-Hage W.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | El-Hage W.,Kings College London | Phillips M.L.,University of Pittsburgh | Phillips M.L.,University of Cardiff | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Psychiatry | Year: 2013

Suboptimal performance in working memory (WM) tasks and inefficient prefrontal cortex functioning are related to dysregulation of dopaminergic (DA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal systems. The aim of the present study was to investigate the joint effect of genetic polymorphisms coding for DA catabolism and glucocorticoid receptor (GR, NR3C1) on brain functioning. The study group (90 right-handed white Caucasian healthy individuals) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments to examine blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response during a WM task with varying cognitive load (1-, 2- and 3-back). We have also examined skin conductance response (SCR) during the WM task and resting-state cerebral blood flow with continuous arterial spin labelling. The genetic markers of interest included Catechol-O-Methyl- Transferase (COMT) (Met 158 Val) and NR3C1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (BclI C/G rs41423247, 9β A/G rs6198 and rs1866388 A/G). Haplotype-based analyses showed (i) a significant effect of COMT polymorphism on left anterior cingulate cortex, with greater deactivation in Met carriers than in Val/Val homozygotes; (ii) a significant effect of BclI polymorphism on right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), with greater activation in G/G carriers than in C carriers and (iii) an interactive effect of BclI (G/G) and COMT (Met/Met) polymorphisms, which was associated with greater activation in right DLPFC. These effects remained significant after controlling for whole-brain resting-state blood flow. SCR amplitude was positively correlated with right DLPFC activation during WM. This study demonstrated that GR and COMT markers exert their separate, as well as interactive, effects on DLPFC function. Epistasis of COMT and BclI minor alleles is associated with higher activation, suggesting lower efficiency, of DLPFC during WM. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

Surguladze S.A.,Kings College London | El-Hage W.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Dalgleish T.,Medical Research Council Cognition and Brain science Unit | Radua J.,Kings College London | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Psychiatric Research | Year: 2010

Emotions of fear and disgust are related to core symptoms of depression. The neurobiological mechanisms of these associations are poorly understood. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study aimed at examining the Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response to facial expressions of fear and disgust in patients with major depressive disorder.Nine patients in an episode of major depression and nine healthy controls underwent two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments where they judged the gender of facial identities displaying different degrees (mild, strong) of fear or disgust, intermixed with non-emotional faces.Compared with healthy controls, patients with depression demonstrated greater activation in left insula, left orbito-frontal gyrus, left middle/inferior temporal gyrus, and right middle/inferior temporal gyrus to expressions of strong disgust. Depressed patients also demonstrated reduced activation in left inferior parietal lobe to mildly fearful faces.Enhanced activation to facial expressions of disgust may reflect an emotion processing bias that suggests high relevance of emotion of disgust to depression. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Charif M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Charif M.,Montpellier University | Roubertie A.,CHRU Montpellier | Desquiret-Dumas V.,CHRU Angers | And 19 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2015

We report on clinical, genetic and metabolic investigations in a family with optic neuropathy, non-progressive cardiomyopathy and cognitive disability. Ophthalmic investigations (slit lamp examination, funduscopy, OCT scan of the optic nerve, ERG and VEP) disclosed mild or no decreased visual acuity, but pale optic disc, loss of temporal optic fibers and decreased VEPs. Mitochondrial DNA and exome sequencing revealed a novel homozygous mutation in the nuclear MTO1 gene and the homoplasmic m.593T>G mutation in the mitochondrial MT-TF gene. Muscle biopsy analyses revealed decreased oxygraphic Vmax values for complexes I+III+IV, and severely decreased activities of the respiratory chain complexes (RCC) I, III and IV, while muscle histopathology was normal. Fibroblast analysis revealed decreased complex I and IV activity and assembly, while cybrid analysis revealed a partial complex I deficiency with normal assembly of the RCC. Thus, in patients with a moderate clinical presentation due to MTO1 mutations, the presence of an optic atrophy should be considered. The association with the mitochondrial mutation m.593T>G could act synergistically to worsen the complex I deficiency and modulate the MTO1-related disease. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Titah S.M.C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Titah S.M.C.,Montpellier University | Meunier I.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Meunier I.,Montpellier University | And 9 more authors.
European Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2012

Purpose. Wolfram syndrome (WS) or diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness (DIDMOAD) (OMIM 222300) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease characterized by diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy as the 2 major criteria, followed later in life by deafness, diabetes insipidus, and various signs of neurologic impairment. The presence of a cataract has been variably mentioned in WS. Method. Two members of a family had thorough ophthalmic examination and their DNA was screened for mutations in mitochondrial DNA, WFS1, OPA1, and OPA3 genes. Results. We report a patient who first had surgery for bilateral cataract at age 5 and who subsequently presented typical signs of WS, i.e., diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy with reduced visual acuity at 20/400 on both eyes at age 22, and mild deafness. The patient was found to be a compound heterozygote for 2 truncating mutations in WFS1, the major WS gene. She carried the previously reported c.1231_1233 delCT and a novel c.2431_2465dup35 mutation. She also was heterozygote for a novel OPA1 sequence variant, c.929A>G in exon 9, whose pathogenicity remains uncertain. The patient's mother was a heterozygous carrier of the c.2431_2465dup35 mutation. She did not have diabetes mellitus or optic atrophy but had bilateral polar cataract. She did not carry the OPA1 sequence variant. Conclusions. Cataract could be a marker for the WFS1 heterozygosity in this family, namely the c.2431_2465dup35 mutation. © 2011 Wichtig Editore. Source

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