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Palesh O.G.,Stanford University | Mustian K.M.,University of Rochester | Peppone L.J.,University of Rochester | Janelsins M.,University of Rochester | And 9 more authors.
Sleep Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: Sleep problems are a frequent distressing symptom in cancer patients, yet little is known about their treatment. Sleep problems and depression frequently co-occur, leading healthcare professionals to treat depression with the expectation that sleep problems will also improve. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of paroxetine to placebo on sleep problems via a secondary data analysis of a RCT designed to compare the effects of paroxetine to placebo on fatigue in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. A previously published report found a significant effect of paroxetine on depression in this cohort. Methods: A total of 426 patients were randomized following Cycle 2 of chemotherapy to receive either 20. mg of paroxetine or placebo. Sleep problems were assessed using questions from the Hamilton Depression Inventory three times during chemotherapy. Results: A total of 217 patients received paroxetine and 209 received placebo. Significantly fewer patients taking paroxetine reported sleep problems compared to patients on placebo (Paroxetine 79% versus Placebo 88%; p< 0.05). These differences remained significant even after controlling for baseline sleep problems and depression (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Paroxetine had a significant benefit on sleep problems in both depressed and non-depressed cancer patients. However, rates of sleep problems remained high even among those effectively treated for depression with paroxetine. There is a need to develop and deliver sleep-specific interventions to effectively treat sleep-related side effects of cancer treatments. These findings suggest that sleep problems and depression are prevalent and co-morbid. Cancer progression, its response to treatment, and overall patient survival are intricately linked to host factors, such as inflammatory response and circadian rhythms, including sleep/wake cycles. Sleep problems and depression are modifiable host factors that can influence inflammation and impact cancer progression and quality of life. Future research should focus on discovering the pathogenesis of sleep dysregulation and depression in cancer so that better treatment approaches can be developed to ameliorate these symptoms. © 2012.

Bernard S.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Bernard B.C.,University of Lyon | Levi F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Levi F.,University Paris - Sud | And 2 more authors.
PLoS Computational Biology | Year: 2010

In host and cancer tissues, drug metabolism and susceptibility to drugs vary in a circadian (24 h) manner. In particular, the efficacy of a cell cycle specific (CCS) cytotoxic agent is affected by the daily modulation of cell cycle activity in the target tissues. Anti-cancer chronotherapy, in which treatments are administered at a particular time each day, aims at exploiting these biological rhythms to reduce toxicity and improve efficacy of the treatment. The circadian status, which is the timing of physiological and behavioral activity relative to daily environmental cues, largely determines the best timing of treatments. However, the influence of variations in tumor kinetics has not been considered in determining appropriate treatment schedules. We used a simple model for cell populations under chronomodulated treatment to identify which biological parameters are important for the successful design of a chronotherapy strategy. We show that the duration of the phase of the cell cycle targeted by the treatment and the cell proliferation rate are crucial in determining the best times to administer CCS drugs. Thus, optimal treatment times depend not only on the circadian status of the patient but also on the cell cycle kinetics of the tumor. Then, we developed a theoretical analysis of treatment outcome (TATO) to relate the circadian status and cell cycle kinetic parameters to the treatment outcomes. We show that the best and the worst CCS drug administration schedules are those with 24 h intervals, implying that 24 h chronomodulated treatments can be ineffective or even harmful if administered at wrong circadian times. We show that for certain tumors, administration times at intervals different from 24 h may reduce these risks without compromising overall efficacy. © 2010 Bernard et al.

Bouchahda M.,Chronotherapy Unit | Bouchahda M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Bouchahda M.,University Paris - Sud | Karaboue A.,Chronotherapy Unit | And 14 more authors.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology | Year: 2010

Purpose: Documentation of a wild-type (wt) KRAS gene in tumor has become mandatory for the prescription of anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Acquired KRAS mutations have seldom been reported in metastases from wt KRAS primary CRC. We report the first case of multiple KRAS mutations acquired during the metastatic phase of CRC, and retrospectively reviewed all patients with CRC, in whom KRAS was analyzed in at least two tumor samples from distinct lesions. Methods: Genomic DNA purified from paraffin-embedded tissues was used after histological quantification of tumor tissue. The seven KRAS mutations located within codons 12 and 13 were screened using the allelic discrimination assay. Results: A 35-year-old woman with CRC liver metastasis, resistant to all conventional cytotoxic agents, experienced for the first time significant tumor shrinkage while cetuximab was added, allowing hepatic resection. Further liver relapse occurred on cetuximab, but a new hepatic resection was attempted. No mutation in KRAS was detected in the primary colon tumor or in synchronous liver metastases. In contrast, in metachronous liver metastasis samples, two distinct mutations at codon 13 and 12 were detected. No acquired mutations were found in all the other 12 CRC cases with at least two serially performed KRAS analyses. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that late switch in KRAS mutational status could occur more frequently than currently recognized and account for acquired resistance to anti-EGFR therapies. Prospective studies are warranted to better estimate the incidence of change in KRAS mutational status and assess their clinical relevance. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

Giacchetti S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Giacchetti S.,University Paris - Sud | Giacchetti S.,Chronotherapy Unit | Dugue P.A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 21 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2012

Background: Molecular circadian clocks can modify cancer chemotherapy effects, with a possible moderation according to sex differences. We investigated whether sex determine the optimal delivery schedule of chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer. Patients and methods: A meta-analysis was performed using individual data from three international Phase III trials comparing 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and oxaliplatin administered in chronomodulated (chronoFLO) or conventional (CONV) infusions. The data from 345 females and 497 males were updated at 9 years. The main end point was survival. Results: Overall survival was improved in males on chronoFLO when compared with CONV (P = 0.009), with respective median values of 20.8 (95% CL, 18.7 to 22.9) and 17.5 months (16.1 to 18.8). Conversely, median survival was 16.6 months (13.9 to 19.3) on chronoFLO and 18.4 months (16.6 to 20.2) on CONV in females (P=0.012). The sex versus schedule interaction was a strong predictive factor of optimal treatment schedule, with a hazard ratio of 1.59 (1.30 to 1.75) for overall survival (P = 0.002) in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Males lived significantly longer on chronomodulated chemotherapy rather than on conventional chemotherapy. The current chronoFLO schedule deserves prospective assessment as a safe and more effective first-line treatment option than conventional delivery for male patients. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.

Innominato P.F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Innominato P.F.,Chronotherapy Unit | Roche V.P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Roche V.P.,University Paris - Sud | And 8 more authors.
Annals of Medicine | Year: 2014

The circadian timing system (CTS) controls several critical molecular pathways for cancer processes and treatment effects over the 24 hours, including drug metabolism, cell cycle, apoptosis, and DNA damage repair mechanisms. This results in the circadian time dependency of whole-body and cellular pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of anticancer agents. However, CTS robustness and phase varies among cancer patients, based on circadian monitoring of rest- activity, body temperature, sleep, and/or hormonal secretion rhythms. Circadian disruption has been further found in up to 50% of patients with metastatic cancer. Such disruption was associated with poor outcomes, including fatigue, anorexia, sleep disorders, and short progression-free and overall survival. Novel, minimally invasive devices have enabled continuous CTS assessment in non-hospitalized cancer patients. They revealed up to 12-hour differences in individual circadian phase. Taken together, the data support the personalization of chronotherapy. This treatment method aims at the adjustment of cancer treatment delivery according to circadian rhythms, using programmable-in-time pumps or novel release formulations, in order to increase both efficacy and tolerability. A fixed oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin chronotherapy protocol prolonged median overall survival in men with metastatic colorectal cancer by 3.3 months as compared to conventional delivery, according to a meta-analysis (P = 0.009). Further analyses revealed the need for the prevention of circadian disruption or the restoration of robust circadian function in patients on chronotherapy, in order to further optimize treatment effects. The strengthening of external synchronizers could meet such a goal, through programmed exercise, meal timing, light exposure, improved social support, sleep scheduling, and the properly timed administration of drugs that target circadian clocks. Chrono-rehabilitation warrants clinical testing for improving quality of life and survival in cancer patients. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.

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