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Zheng J.,University of Sydney | Chan T.,University of Sydney | Zhu L.,University of Sydney | Yan X.,Northeast Forestry University | And 3 more authors.
Xenobiotica | Year: 2016

1. Camptothecin (CPT) and its derivatives are potent candidate compounds in treating cancers. However, their clinical applications are largely restricted by severe toxicities. 2. The solute carrier transporters (SLCs), particularly the organic anion transporting polypeptides and organic anion/cation transporters (OATs/OCTs) are widely expressed in human key organs and responsible for the cellular influx of many substances including endogenous substrates and many clinically important drugs. Drug–drug interactions through SLCs often result in unsatisfied therapeutic outcomes and/or unexpected toxicities. 3. This study investigated the inhibitory effects of CPT and its eight derivatives on the cellular uptake of specific substrates mediated by the essential SLCs in over-expressing Human embryonic kidney 293 cells. 4. Our data revealed that CPT, 10-hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT), 10-methoxycamptothecin (MCPT) and 9-nitrocamptothecin (9NC) significantly inhibit the uptake activity of OAT3. 9NC also inhibited the substrate transport mediated by OAT1. The substrate uptakes of OAT1, OCTN1 and OCTN2 were significantly decreased in the presence of CZ112, while CPT-11 potently down-regulated the transport activity of OCT1 and OCT3. 5. In summary, our study demonstrated that CPT and its eight derivatives selectively inhibit the substrate uptakes mediated by the essential SLCs. This information contributes to understanding the localized toxicity of CPTs and provides novel molecular targets for the therapeutic optimization of CPTs in the future. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.

The Christus Stehlin Foundation For Cancer Research | Date: 2012-11-09

Rodent therapeutic models are provided containing at least human hepatocytes and at least one of human hematopoietic bone marrow cells and human cord blood. Such rodent therapeutic models can also be immunodeficient and/or contain human intestinal enzymes. These partially humanized rodent therapeutic models can have at least partially humanized bone marrow and a partially humanized liver. These rodent models include mice. The rodent models can be transplanted with one or more tumors, for example, xenotransplantation with a human tumor. Toxicological and efficacy trials of various therapies, for example, anti-cancer therapies, can be performed with these rodent therapeutic models. Oral administration of camptothecin can demonstrate increased toxicity in the humanized mice.

PubMed | The CHRISTUS Stehlin Foundation for Cancer Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Anti-cancer agents in medicinal chemistry | Year: 2012

All chemotherapeutic agents currently in use have a narrow window of therapeutic index of 1 to 1.2. Camptothecin ester compounds are reported to have a wider therapeutic index when being used to treat human xenografts in nude mice. As a continuous effort in searching for better chemotherapeutic agents for treating cancers, new haloalkyl camptothecin and 9-nitrocamptothecin ester derivatives 2a-b and 3a-d were prepared by respective acylation of camptothecin 1a and 9-nitrocamptothecin 1b with the corresponding acylating agents. These new derivatives were tested in vitro against 8 human cancer cell lines using 7 different concentrations ranging from 5 to 300 nM and also in vivo against various types of human tumor xenografts grown in nude mice. Most of these new compounds started showing inhibitory effects on the growth of 8 cancer cell lines at concentration of 80 nM and achieved greater than 70% inhibitions against these cell lines when the concentration increased to 300 nM. Compound 2a and 3a showed good activity against human tumor xenografts in nude mice. Compared to mother compound camptothecin, 3a was much less toxic in mice with a better therapeutic index, having the potential to be further developed as a safer treatment for cancers.

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