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Okosun J.,Queen Mary, University of London | Bodor C.,Queen Mary, University of London | Bodor C.,Semmelweis University | Wang J.,Queen Mary, University of London | And 31 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2014

Follicular lymphoma is an incurable malignancy, with transformation to an aggressive subtype representing a critical event during disease progression. Here we performed whole-genome or whole-exome sequencing on 10 follicular lymphoma-transformed follicular lymphoma pairs followed by deep sequencing of 28 genes in an extension cohort, and we report the key events and evolutionary processes governing tumor initiation and transformation. Tumor evolution occurred through either a 'rich' or 'sparse' ancestral common progenitor clone (CPC). We identified recurrent mutations in linker histone, JAK-STAT signaling, NF-κB signaling and B cell developmental genes. Longitudinal analyses identified early driver mutations in chromatin regulator genes (CREBBP, EZH2 and KMT2D (MLL2)), whereas mutations in EBF1 and regulators of NF-κB signaling (MYD88 and TNFAIP3) were gained at transformation. Collectively, this study provides new insights into the genetic basis of follicular lymphoma and the clonal dynamics of transformation and suggests that personalizing therapies to target key genetic alterations in the CPC represents an attractive therapeutic strategy. © 2014 Nature America, Inc.


Molassiotis A.,University of Manchester | Bardy J.,University of Manchester | Finnegan-John J.,King's College London | Mackereth P.,Christie National Health Service NHS Foundation Trust | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2012

Purpose: We aimed to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture for cancer-related fatigue (CRF) in patients with breast cancer. Patients and Methods: We conducted a pragmatic, randomized controlled trial comparing acupuncture with enhanced usual care. Three hundred two outpatients with breast cancer participated. We randomly assigned 75 patients to usual care and 227 patients to acupuncture plus usual care (random assignment of 1:3 respectively) with minimization controlling for baseline general fatigue and maintenance treatment. Treatment was delivered by acupuncturists once a week for 6 weeks through needling three pairs of acupoints. The usual care group received a booklet with information about fatigue and its management. Primary outcome was general fatigue at 6 weeks, measured with the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI). Other measurements included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General quality-of-life scale, and expectation of acupuncture effect. Analyses were by intention to treat. Results: Two hundred forty-six of 302 patients randomly assigned provided complete data at 6 weeks. The difference in the mean General Fatigue score, between those who received the intervention and those who did not, was -3.11 (95% CI, -3.97 to -2.25; P < .001). The intervention also improved all other fatigue aspects measured by MFI, including Physical Fatigue and Mental Fatigue (acupuncture effect, -2.36 and -1.94, respectively; both at P < .001), anxiety and depression (acupuncture effect, -1.83 and -2.13, respectively; both at P < .001), and quality of life (Physical Well-Being effect, 3.30; Functional Well-Being effect, 3.57; both at P < .001; Emotional Well-Being effect, 1.93; P = .001; and Social Functioning Well-Being effect, 1.05; P < .05). Conclusion: Acupuncture is an effective intervention for managing the symptom of CRF and improving patients' quality of life. © 2012 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.


PubMed | Royal Infirmary, Charité - Medical University of Berlin, Semmelweis University, Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics and 7 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nature genetics | Year: 2014

Follicular lymphoma is an incurable malignancy, with transformation to an aggressive subtype representing a critical event during disease progression. Here we performed whole-genome or whole-exome sequencing on 10 follicular lymphoma-transformed follicular lymphoma pairs followed by deep sequencing of 28 genes in an extension cohort, and we report the key events and evolutionary processes governing tumor initiation and transformation. Tumor evolution occurred through either a rich or sparse ancestral common progenitor clone (CPC). We identified recurrent mutations in linker histone, JAK-STAT signaling, NF-B signaling and B cell developmental genes. Longitudinal analyses identified early driver mutations in chromatin regulator genes (CREBBP, EZH2 and KMT2D (MLL2)), whereas mutations in EBF1 and regulators of NF-B signaling (MYD88 and TNFAIP3) were gained at transformation. Collectively, this study provides new insights into the genetic basis of follicular lymphoma and the clonal dynamics of transformation and suggests that personalizing therapies to target key genetic alterations in the CPC represents an attractive therapeutic strategy.


Mallick U.,Freeman Hospital | Harmer C.,Royal Marsden Hospital | Yap B.,Christie National Health Service NHS Foundation Trust | Wadsley J.,Weston Park Hospital | And 24 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: It is not known whether low-dose radioiodine (1.1 GBq [30 mCi]) is as effective as high-dose radioiodine (3.7 GBq [100 mCi]) for treating patients with differentiated thyroid cancer or whether the effects of radioiodine (especially at a low dose) are influenced by using either recombinant human thyrotropin (thyrotropin alfa) or thyroid hormone withdrawal. METHODS: At 29 centers in the United Kingdom, we conducted a randomized noninferiority trial comparing low-dose and high-dose radioiodine, each in combination with either thyrotropin alfa or thyroid hormone withdrawal before ablation. Patients (age range, 16 to 80 years) had tumor stage T1 to T3, with possible spread to nearby lymph nodes but without metastasis. End points were the rate of success of ablation at 6 to 9 months, adverse events, quality of life, and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: A total of 438 patients underwent randomization; data could be analyzed for 421. Ablation success rates were 85.0% in the group receiving low-dose radioiodine versus 88.9% in the group receiving the high dose and 87.1% in the thyrotropin alfa group versus 86.7% in the group undergoing thyroid hormone withdrawal. All 95% confidence intervals for the differences were within ±10 percentage points, indicating noninferiority. Similar results were found for low-dose radioiodine plus thyrotropin alfa (84.3%) versus high-dose radioiodine plus thyroid hormone withdrawal (87.6%) or high-dose radioiodine plus thyrotropin alfa (90.2%). More patients in the high-dose group than in the low-dose group were hospitalized for at least 3 days (36.3% vs. 13.0%, P<0.001). The proportions of patients with adverse events were 21% in the low-dose group versus 33% in the high-dose group (P = 0.007) and 23% in the thyrotropin alfa group versus 30% in the group undergoing thyroid hormone withdrawal (P = 0.11). CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose radioiodine plus thyrotropin alfa was as effective as high-dose radioiodine, with a lower rate of adverse events. Copyright © 2012 Massachusetts Medical Society.

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