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Pappo A.S.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | Patel S.R.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Crowley J.,Cancer Research and Biostatistics | Reinke D.K.,Sarcoma Alliance for Research Through Collaboration | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2011

Purpose: The type 1 insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT). We conducted a multicenter phase II study of the fully human IGF-1R monoclonal antibody R1507 in patients with recurrent or refractory ESFT. Patients and Methods: Patients ≥ 2 years of age with refractory or recurrent ESFT received R1507 at doses of 9 mg/kg intravenously one a week or 27 mg/kg intravenously every three weeks. Response was measured by using WHO criteria. Tumor imaging was performed every 6 weeks for 24 weeks and then every 12 weeks. Results: From December 2007 through April 2010, 115 eligible patients from 31 different institutions were enrolled. The median age was 25 years (range, 8 to 78 years). The location of the primary tumor was bone in 57% of patients and extraskeletal in 43% of patients. A total of 109 patients were treated with R1507 9 mg/kg/wk, and six patients were treated with 27 mg/kg/3 wk. The overall complete response/partial response rate was 10% (95% CI, 4.9% to 16.5%). The median duration of response was 29 weeks (range, 12 to 94 weeks), and the median overall survival was 7.6 months (95% CI, 6 to 9.7 months). Ten of 11 responses were observed in patients who presented with primary bone tumors (P = .016). The most common adverse events of grades 3 to 4 were pain (15%), anemia (8%), thrombocytopenia (7%), and asthenia (5%). Conclusion: R1507 was a well-tolerated agent that had meaningful and durable benefit in a subgroup of patients with ESFT. The identification of markers that are predictive of a benefit is necessary to fully capitalize on this approach. © 2011 by American Society of Clinical Oncology. Source


Denes J.,Queen Mary, University of London | Denes J.,Semmelweis University | Swords F.,Norwich University | Rattenberry E.,University of Birmingham | And 52 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2015

Context: Pituitary adenomas and pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas (pheo/PGL) can occur in the same patient or in the same family. Coexistence of the two diseases could be due to either a common pathogenic mechanism or a coincidence. Objective: The objective of the investigation was to study the possible coexistence of pituitary adenoma and pheo/PGL. Design: Thirty-nine cases of sporadic or familial pheo/PGL and pituitary adenomas were investigated. Known pheo/PGL genes (SDHA-D, SDHAF2, RET, VHL, TMEM127, MAX, FH) and pituitary adenoma genes (MEN1, AIP, CDKN1B) were sequenced using next generation or Sanger sequencing. Loss of heterozygosity study and pathological studies were performed on the available tumor samples. Setting: The study was conducted at university hospitals. Patients: Thirty-nine patients with sporadic of familial pituitary adenoma and pheo/PGL participated in the study. Outcome: Outcomes included genetic screening and clinical characteristics. Results: Eleven germline mutations (five SDHB, one SDHC, one SDHD, two VHL, and two MEN1) and four variants of unknown significance (two SDHA, one SDHB, and one SDHAF2) were identified in the studied genes in our patient cohort. Tumor tissue analysis identified LOH at the SDHB locus in three pituitary adenomas and loss of heterozygosity at the MEN1 locus in two pheochromocytomas. All the pituitary adenomas of patients affected by SDHX alterations have a unique histological feature not previously described in this context. Conclusions: Mutations in the genes known to cause pheo/PGL can rarely be associated with pituitary adenomas, whereas mutation in a gene predisposing to pituitary adenomas (MEN1) can be associated with pheo/PGL. Our findings suggest that genetic testing should be considered in all patients or families with the constellation of pheo/PGL and a pituitary adenoma. © 2015, Endocrine Society. All rights reserved. Source


Raymond E.,France Inter | Dahan L.,Service dOncologie Digestive | Raoul J.-L.,University of Rennes 1 | Bang Y.-J.,Seoul National University | And 16 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: The multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib has shown activity against pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in preclinical models and phase 1 and 2 trials. METHODS: We conducted a multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial of sunitinib in patients with advanced, well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. All patients had Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors-defined disease progression documented within 12 months before baseline. A total of 171 patients were randomly assigned (in a 1:1 ratio) to receive best supportive care with either sunitinib at a dose of 37.5 mg per day or placebo. The primary end point was progression-free survival; secondary end points included the objective response rate, overall survival, and safety. RESULTS: The study was discontinued early, after the independent data and safety monitoring committee observed more serious adverse events and deaths in the placebo group as well as a difference in progression-free survival favoring sunitinib. Median progression-free survival was 11.4 months in the sunitinib group as compared with 5.5 months in the placebo group (hazard ratio for progression or death, 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26 to 0.66; P<0.001). A Cox proportional-hazards analysis of progression-free survival according to baseline characteristics favored sunitinib in all subgroups studied. The objective response rate was 9.3% in the sunitinib group versus 0% in the placebo group. At the data cutoff point, 9 deaths were reported in the sunitinib group (10%) versus 21 deaths in the placebo group (25%) (hazard ratio for death, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.89; P = 0.02). The most frequent adverse events in the sunitinib group were diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, asthenia, and fatigue. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous daily administration of sunitinib at a dose of 37.5 mg improved progression-free survival, overall survival, and the objective response rate as compared with placebo among patients with advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. (Funded by Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00428597.) Copyright © 2011 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source


Walz C.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Erben P.,Universitatsmedizin Mannheim | Ritter M.,Klinik fur Innere Medizin | Bloor A.,Christie Hospital National Health Service Foundation Trust | And 12 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2011

Imatinib-resistant tyrosine kinase (TK) fusions involving FGFR1, JAK2, or FLT3 are rare but recurrent in patients with eosinophilia-associated neoplasms. We report here 2 male patients with ETV6-FLT3+ myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms with eosinophilia who were treated with the multitargeted TK inhibitors sunitinib and sorafenib. Patient 1 achieved rapid complete hematologic response and complete cytogenetic response after 3 months of taking sunitinib. A secondary blast phase caused by clonal evolution was diagnosed after 6 months. He achieved a second complete hematologic response after taking sorafenib but relapsed 2 months later. An N841K point mutation within the TK domain of FLT3, previously reported in acute myeloid leukemia and potentially conferring resistance to sorafenib, was subsequently identified. Patient 2 was heavily pretreated according to the initial diagnosis of T-lymphoblastic lymphoma and died in sunitinib-induced pancytopenia. This report highlights the importance of a careful diagnostic workup for eosinophilia-associated neoplasms to evaluate the possibility of TK inhibitor therapy. © 2011 by The American Society of Hematology. Source


Kiemeney L.A.,Biostatistics and Health Technology Assessment | Kiemeney L.A.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Kiemeney L.A.,Comprehensive Cancer Center East | Sulem P.,DeCODE Genetics Inc. | And 80 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2010

Previously, we reported germline DNA variants associated with risk of urinary bladder cancer (UBC) in Dutch and Icelandic subjects. Here we expanded the Icelandic sample set and tested the top 20 markers from the combined analysis in several European case-control sample sets, with a total of 4,739 cases and 45,549 controls. The T allele of rs798766 on 4p16.3 was found to associate with UBC (odds ratio = 1.24, P = 9.9 × 10 12). rs798766 is located in an intron of TACC3, 70 kb from FGFR3, which often harbors activating somatic mutations in low-grade, noninvasive UBC. Notably, rs798766[T] shows stronger association with low-grade and low-stage UBC than with more aggressive forms of the disease and is associated with higher risk of recurrence in low-grade stage Ta tumors. The frequency of rs798766[T] is higher in Ta tumors that carry an activating mutation in FGFR3 than in Ta tumors with wild-type FGFR3. Our results show a link between germline variants, somatic mutations of FGFR3 and risk of UBC. © 2010 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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