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Beaver J.A.,Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins | Jelovac D.,Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins | Balukrishna S.,Christian Medical College Vellore | Cochran R.L.,Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins | And 25 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2014

Purpose: Detecting circulating plasma tumor DNA (ptDNA) in patients with early-stage cancer has the potential to change how oncologists recommend systemic therapies for solid tumors after surgery. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) is a novel sensitive and specific platform for mutation detection. Experimental Design: In this prospective study, primary breast tumors and matched pre-and postsurgery blood samples were collected from patients with early-stage breast cancer (n=29). Tumors (n=30) were analyzed by Sanger sequencing for common PIK3CA mutations, and DNA from these tumors and matched plasma were then analyzed for PIK3CA mutations using ddPCR. Results: Sequencing of tumors identified seven PIK3CA exon 20 mutations (H1047R) and three exon 9 mutations (E545K). Analysis of tumors by ddPCR confirmed these mutations and identified five additional mutations. Presurgery plasma samples (n=29) were then analyzed for PIK3CA mutations using ddPCR. Of the 15 PIK3CA mutations detected in tumors by ddPCR, 14 of the corresponding mutations were detected in presurgical ptDNA, whereas no mutations were found in plasma from patients with PIK3CA wild-type tumors (sensitivity 93.3%, specificity 100%). Ten patients with mutation-positive ptDNA presurgery had ddPCR analysis of postsurgery plasma, with five patients having detectable ptDNA postsurgery. Conclusions: This prospective study demonstrates accurate mutation detection in tumor tissues using ddPCR, and that ptDNA can be detected in blood before and after surgery in patients with early-stage breast cancer. Future studies can now address whether ptDNA detected after surgery identifies patients at risk for recurrence, which could guide chemotherapy decisions for individual patients. © 2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

Rempel G.R.,University of Alberta | Blythe C.,University of Alberta | Rogers L.G.,University of Alberta | Ravindran V.,University of Alberta | Ravindran V.,Christian Medical College Vellore
Journal of Family Nursing | Year: 2012

The Family Management Style Framework (FMSF) was used as a conceptual basis for secondary data analysis of 55 previously conducted interviews with mothers and fathers of children with a lethal congenital condition from two surgical treatment eras. The directed content analysis was guided by a coding structure developed from family management dimensions identified in prior research of family response to childhood chronic conditions. Results indicated that application of the FMSF was helpful in differentiating families and their processes of family management at the onset of their infant's illness through to surviving the first surgery and going home. The dimensions of Illness View and Child Identity were central to the parents' capacity to manage their baby's illness demands within their family context. Applying a robust family framework to a complex neonatal condition at illness onset provides compelling direction for clinical interventions and their rigorous evaluation. © SAGE Publications 2012.

Young G.P.,University of South Australia | Mortimer E.K.,University of South Australia | Gopalsamy G.L.,University of South Australia | Alpers D.H.,University of Washington | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2014

Zinc deficiency is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. The WHO/UNICEF strategy for zinc supplementation as adjunctive therapy for diarrhea is poorly implemented. A conference of experts in zinc nutrition and gastrointestinal disorders was convened to consider approaches that might complement the current recommendation and what research was needed to develop these approaches. Several key points were identified. The design of novel zinc interventions would be facilitated by a better understanding of how disturbed gut function, such as environmental (or tropical) enteropathy, affects zinc absorption, losses, and homeostasis. Because only 10% of zinc stores are able to be rapidly turned over, and appear to be rapidly depleted by acute intestinal illness, they are probably best maintained by complementary regular supplementation in a primary prevention strategy rather than secondary prevention triggered by acute diarrhea. The assessment of zinc status is challenging and complex without simple, validated measures to facilitate field testing of novel interventions. Zinc bioavailability may be a crucial factor in the success of primary prevention strategies, and a range of options, all still inadequately explored, might be valuable in improving zinc nutrition. Some therapeutic actions of zinc on diarrhea seem attributable to pharmacologic effects, whereas others are related to the reversal of deficiency (ie, nutritional). The distinction between these 2 mechanisms cannot be clarified given the insensitivity of serum zinc to identify subclinical deficiency states. Why zinc seems to be less effective than expected at all ages, and ineffective for secondary prevention of diarrhea in children ,12 mo of age, remains unclear. It was concluded that a reframing of the current recommendation is warranted with consideration of how to better optimize and deliver zinc and whether to provide a complementary public health primary prevention zinc strategy. This requires careful consideration of the zinc product to be used as well as strategies for its delivery. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

Philip George A.J.,Christian Medical College Vellore | Banerji J.S.,Christian Medical College Vellore
Urology | Year: 2013

A case of primary hyperparathyroidism with bilateral renal staghorn calculi and brown tumor right thumb is reported in these images, along with the appropriate sequential management. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL)was done after management of hypercalcemia and after parathyroidectomy. This case highlights the need for urologists and general practitioners to have a holistic approach in patient management. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Moses V.,Christian Medical College Vellore | Korah I.,Christian Medical College Vellore
American Journal of Roentgenology | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVE. There arc few articles in the literature describing the security and safety aspects of networked medical equipment in radiology departments. Most radiologists are unaware of the security issues. We review the security of the networked medical equipment of a typical radiology department. MATERIALS AND METHODS. All networked medical equipment in a radiology department was scanned for vulnerabilities with a port scanner and a network vulnerability scanner, ami the vulnerabilities were classified using the Common Vulnerability Scoring System. A network sniffer was used to capture and analyze traffic on the radiology network for exposure of confidential patient data. We reviewed the use of antivirus software and firewalls on the networked medical equipment. USB ports and CD and DVD drives in the networked medical equipment were tested to see whether they allowed unauthorized access. Implementation of the virtual private network (VPN) thai vendors use to access the radiology network was reviewed. RESULTS. Most of the networked medical equipment in our radiology department used vulnerable software witli open ports and services. Of the 144 hems scanned, 64 (44%) had at least one critical vulnerability, and 119 (83%) had at least one high-risk vulnerability. Most equipment did not encrypt traffic and allowed capture of confidential patient data. Of the 144 items scanned, two (1%) used antivirus software and three (2%) had a firewall enabled. The I ISls ports were not secure on 49 of the 58 (84%) ileitis with USB ports, and the CD or DVD drive was not secure on 17 of the 31 (55%) items with a CD or DVD drive. One of three vendors had an insecure implementation of Vl'N access. CONCLUSION. Radiologists and the medical industry need lo urgently review and rectify the security issues in existing networked medical equipment. We hope that the results of our study and this article also raise awareness among radiologists about the security issues of networked medical equipment. © American Roentgen Ray Society.

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