Jain A.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences |
Sharma M.C.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences |
Suri V.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences |
Kale S.S.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences |
And 8 more authors.
Neurology India | Year: 2011
Background : Till date there is no published multi-institutional data regarding the epidemiological profile of pediatric brain tumors in India. Aim : The present retrospective study analyses the histological spectrum of pediatric age group brain tumors in seven tertiary care hospitals in India. Material and Methods : Data regarding frequencies of various primary brain tumors (diagnosed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification), in 3936 pediatric patients (<18 yrs of age), was collected from seven tertiary care hospitals in India.Results : The most common primary pediatric brain tumors were astrocytic tumors (34.7%), followed by medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuro-ectodermal tumors (22.4%), craniopharyngiomas (10.2%) and ependymal tumors (9.8%). The most common astrocytic tumor was pilocytic astrocytoma. In comparison to adults, oligodendrogliomas and lymphomas were rare in children. Conclusions : Our study is the first such report on the histological spectrum of brain tumors in children in India. Except for a slightly higher frequency of craniopharyngiomas, the histological profile of pediatric brain tumors in India is similar to that reported in the Western literature.
Rahi M.,Indian Council of Medical Research Task Force on Development of Guidelines for diagnosis |
Gupte M.D.,Indian Council of Medical Research Task Force on Development of Guidelines for diagnosis |
Bhargava A.,Himalayan Institute of Medical science HIMS |
Varghese G.M.,Christian Medical College CMC |
Arora R.,Indian Council of Medical Research Task Force on Development of Guidelines for diagnosis
Indian Journal of Medical Research | Year: 2015
Rickettsial diseases, caused by a variety of obligate intracellular, gram-negative bacteria from the genera Rickettsia, Orientia, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia, Neoehrlichia, and Anaplasma, belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria, are considered some of the most covert emerging and re-emerging diseases and are being increasingly recognized. Among the major groups of rickettsioses, commonly reported diseases in India are scrub typhus, murine flea-borne typhus, Indian tick typhus and Q fever. Rickettsial infections are generally incapacitating and difficult to diagnose; untreated cases have case fatality rates as high as 30-45 per cent with multiple organ dysfunction, if not promptly diagnosed and appropriately treated. The vast variability and non-specific presentation of this infection have often made it difficult to diagnose clinically. Prompt antibiotic therapy shortens the course of the disease, lowers the risk of complications and in turn reduces morbidity and mortality due to rickettsial diseases. There is a distinct need for physicians and health care workers at all levels of care in India to be aware of the clinical features, available diagnostic tests and their interpretation, and the therapy of these infections. Therefore, a Task Force was constituted by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) to formulate guidelines for diagnosis and management of rickettsial diseases. These guidelines include presenting manifestations, case definition, laboratory criteria (specific and supportive investigations) and treatment. © 2015, Indian Council of Medical Research. All rights reserved.
Prabhav N.R.,Christian Medical College |
Prabhav N.R.,Vellore Institute of Technology |
Devasahayam S.R.,Christian Medical College |
Babu K.S.,Christian Medical College CMC
International Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Technology | Year: 2014
The use of electrically powered hands is impeded by their control interfaces. EMG (electromyogram) based prosthetic control is very promising but its deployment is limited by problems with surface recording of EMG. EMG recorded from implanted electrodes seems to be good alternative. In this paper, we describe a system for artificial hand control based on implanted EMG. The system includes a data transfer link based on the IEEE 802.15.4 network, a power transfer scheme built around a pair of coupled inductors driven by a class E amplifier. The entire system can run off a mobile phone battery for around 4 hours. We describe the acquisition and classification of EMG into different groups and the effect of noise in the radio channel on the classification. ©2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
Kalyaniwala K.,Christian Medical College CMC |
Abhilash K.P.P.,Christian Medical College CMC |
Victor P.J.,Medical Intensive Care Unit
Journal of Association of Physicians of India | Year: 2016
Cartap hydrochloride is a moderately hazardous nereistoxin insecticide that is increasingly used for deliberate self-harm in India. It can cause neuromuscular weakness resulting in respiratory failure. We report a patient with 4% Cartap hydrochloride poisoning who required mechanical ventilation for 36-hours. He recovered without any neurological deficits. We also review literature on Cartap hydrochloride poisoning. © 2016, Journal of Association of Physicians of India. All rights reserved.
Thomas V.,JKK Nataraja Dental College and Hospital |
Rema Devi S.,Clinical Epidemiology Resource and Training Center |
Jeyaseelan V.,Christian Medical College CMC |
Jeyseelan L.,Christian Medical College CMC
Oral Oncology | Year: 2012
Objectives: Oral visual screening can avert oral cancer mortality. Oral premalignancies are currently considered as separate, individual disorders. The objective was to develop a simple clinical screening tool to detect oral premalignancies in general health care setting and validate diagnostic accuracy against Oral Medicine specialist examination as gold standard. Materials and methods: All steps in development of new tool, from item generation to item selection and item reduction were carried out. Item generation was done using qualitative methods. After pre-testing and piloting, junior dental house surgeon administered the refined tool, to patients attending dental outpatient department (n = 255). Subsequent evaluation by an Oral Medicine specialist using consensus clinical criteria, detected 59 screen positive cases. Each case was recoded as per scores assigned by binary logistic regression coefficients and total score computed. The Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) was performed against specialist examination as gold standard. Performance ability and reliability coefficient of final tool was assessed. A simple score was assigned to indicate stage and clinical severity. Results: Screening Tool for Oral Premalignancies (STOP) has sensitivity 96.6%, specificity 99.0% and accuracy 98.4% with reliability coefficient 0.874. Scores detect clinical signs and staging reflect clinical severity alerts. Conclusion: Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders need to be evaluated as single entity, under a common umbrella - Mucosal Disorders with Oral Epithelial Dysplasia risk (MD-OEDr). STOP is a simple tool for opportunistic general health care screening of MD-OEDr. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Choudhary S.,Christian Medical College CMC |
Choudhary S.,Ranchi University |
Agarwal I.,Christian Medical College CMC |
Seshadri M.S.,Christian Medical College CMC
Pediatric Nephrology | Year: 2014
Background: There are no robust guidelines on strategies to prevent the adverse skeletal effects of glucocorticoids in children. Objectives: To evaluate the role of prophylactic calcium and vitamin D on bone health in children with new-onset nephrotic syndrome (NS) treated with short-term (12 weeks), high-dose glucocorticoids. Methods: Prospective, randomized, controlled, single blind, interventional study conducted on 41 steroid-naïve pre-pubertal children (29 boys, 12 girls). All children received prednisolone for 12 weeks (60 mg/m2/day daily for 6 weeks, followed by 40 mg/m2/day alternate days for 6 weeks). Recruited children were randomized into the intervention group (IG; vitamin D 1,000 IU/day and elemental calcium 500 mg/day) and the control group (CG). Bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (L1-L4) were estimated at baseline and at 12 weeks. Mean percentage changes in BMC and BMD in IG and CG were compared. Results: Children in the IG showed an increase of 11.2 % in BMC versus the CG, who showed an 8.9 % fall (p<0.0001). Net intervention-attributable difference in BMC was 20.1 %. BMD increased in both groups (IG 2.8 % vs CG 0.74 %), but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.27). Conclusions: Short-term, high-dose glucocorticoid therapy decreases the BMC of the lumbar spine in steroid-naïve children with NS. Vitamin D and calcium co-administration not only prevents this decline, but also enhances BMC of the lumbar spine. © 2014 IPNA.
Khurana P.,Christian Medical College CMC |
Dala J.S.,Government Medical College |
Multani A.S.,FMT |
Journal of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine | Year: 2011
Trend of poisoning had been constantly changing throughout the world, as the advent of new agents, has always replaced the older one due to their innumerable merits and demerits. Similarly in India, the pattern of ingested poisons has also changed. A number of chemical substances which are developed to save the agriculturalproduct from rodents and pests are in fact themselves proving to be disastrous for mankind. Recently in the last two decades aluminium phosphide [Alphos] used as pesticide, rodenticide, fumigant for storage of food grains has created havoc with the human lives differently i.e. suicidal, accidental and very rarely homicidal poisoning agent. Alphos, a solid fumigant used for storage of food grains, freely accessible in the market is commonly used suicidal agent with high mortality rate as no antidote or specific treatment is available. The present study of 50 cases of aluminium phosphide poisoning showed male dominance, common in sikhs and educated persons. Heart is the first organ to be affected. Shock was present in majority of cases. Sufficient time was available for recording dying declaration.
Dutta A.K.,Christian Medical College CMC |
Sood R.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences |
Singh U.B.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences |
Kapil A.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences |
Samantaray J.C.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences
Journal, Indian Academy of Clinical Medicine | Year: 2013
Introduction: Bone marrow examination (BME) including bone marrow cultures (BMC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are often used as diagnostic procedures for the evaluation of fever of unknown origin (FUO). However, objective data are limited about their utility in FUO. Methodology: Fifty-two patients with FUO were included in the study. After initial evaluation, BME was performed. Bone marrow aspirate was subjected to pathological examination; bacterial, fungal, and mycobacterial cultures; smear examination for AFB/ LD bodies/malarial parasite, and PCR for M. tuberculosis. Bone marrow (BM) trephine was subjected to histopathological examination. The diagnostic yield of BME and the number of patients in whom it was the only diagnostic modality were determined. Results: A definitive diagnosis could be achieved in 43(82.7%) patients. Thirty-two patients had infectious aetiology with extrapulmonary tuberculosis being the commonest cause of FUO. The diagnostic yield of BME was 38.6% and it was the only diagnostic modality in 25.6% of patients. The yield of BM aspirate smear examination was 15.4%. PCR for M. tuberculosis and fungal cultures were diagnostic in one patient each. Bacterial and mycobacterial cultures were sterile in all patients. A correlation of haematological parameters with BME showed that patients with Hb < 7.7 g% or TLC< 4,450/mm3 had a significantly higher yield on bone marrow examination. Conclusion: Conventional BME showed a good diagnostic yield in evaluation of FUO. Newer techniques had very low diagnostic yield.
Ekbote A.V.,Christian Medical College and Hospital |
Mandal K.,Christian Medical College and Hospital |
Agarwal I.,Christian Medical College CMC |
Sinha R.,Christian Medical College CMC |
Danda S.,Christian Medical College and Hospital
Indian Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2012
Fanconi -Bickel Syndrome (FBS) is described as an autosomal recessive Glycogen Storage Disorder type XI. The underlying enzyme defect is unknown. The gene GLUT2 maps to 3q26.1-q26.3; encodes a facultative glucose transporter gene. A 6-y-old girl presented with the characteristic facial gestalt, glucose and galactose intolerance, proximal renal tubular dysfunction, hepatomegaly, and altered liver function. To confirm the diagnosis, mutation analysis was performed. Patient showed homozygous mutation in exon 9 of GLUT2 gene 1093 C>T, the mutation causing transition from arginine to stop codon at position 365 and causing premature termination of protein. The mutation was found to be causative as previously described. To the best of authors' knowledge this is first Indian patient ever reported with a mutation. Genetic testing can be employed as a method of confirming diagnosis, especially where definitive mutation can be useful for prenatal diagnosis and prognostication.
PubMed | Christian Medical College CMC
Type: | Journal: SAGE open medical case reports | Year: 2016
The nitroimidazole group of antibiotics like metronidazole have been reported to cause cerebellar ataxia as a rare side effect. Ornidazole, the newest derivative of this class, has a long half life and is very rarely known to cause cerebellar ataxia. Here, we report a 61-year-old patient who developed ataxia due to ornidazole to highlight an unusual adverse event that improved rapidly after discontinuation of the offending drug.