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Ludhiāna, India

John T.J.,Christian Medical College
The Indian journal of medical research | Year: 2013

India's success in eliminating wild polioviruses (WPVs) has been acclaimed globally. Since the last case on January 13, 2011 success has been sustained for two years. By early 2014 India could be certified free of WPV transmission, if no indigenous transmission occurs, the chances of which is considered zero. Until early 1990s India was hyperendemic for polio, with an average of 500 to 1000 children getting paralysed daily. In spite of introducing trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) in the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 1979, the burden of polio did not fall below that of the pre-EPI era for a decade. One of the main reasons was the low vaccine efficacy (VE) of tOPV against WPV types 1 and 3. The VE of tOPV was highest for type 2 and WPV type 2 was eliminated in 1999 itself as the average per-capita vaccine coverage reached 6. The VE against types 1 and 3 was the lowest in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, where the force of transmission of WPVs was maximum on account of the highest infant-population density. Transmission was finally interrupted with sustained and extraordinary efforts. During the years since 2004 annual pulse polio vaccination campaigns were conducted 10 times each year, virtually every child was tracked and vaccinated - including in all transit points and transport vehicles, monovalent OPV types 1 and 3 were licensed and applied in titrated campaigns according to WPV epidemiology and bivalent OPV (bOPV, with both types 1 and 3) was developed and judiciously deployed. Elimination of WPVs with OPV is only phase 1 of polio eradication. India is poised to progress to phase 2, with introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), switch from tOPV to bOPV and final elimination of all vaccine-related and vaccine-derived polioviruses. True polio eradication demands zero incidence of poliovirus infection, wild and vaccine. Source

Varghese M.J.,Christian Medical College
Annals of Pediatric Cardiology | Year: 2014

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder of lipoprotein metabolism resulting in elevated serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels leading to increased risk for premature cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The diagnosis of this condition is based on clinical features, family history, and elevated LDL-cholesterol levels aided more recently by genetic testing. As the atherosclerotic burden is dependent on the degree and duration of exposure to raised LDL-cholesterol levels, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment is paramount. Statins are presently the mainstay in the management of these patients, although newer drugs, LDL apheresis, and other investigational therapies may play a role in certain subsets of FH, which are challenging to treat. Together these novel treatments have notably improved the prognosis of FH, especially that of the heterozygous patients. Despite these achievements, a majority of children fail to attain targeted lipid goals owing to persistent shortcomings in diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment. This review aims to highlight the screening, diagnosis, goals of therapy, and management options in patients with FH. Source

Jacob T.J.,Christian Medical College
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Surgery for anorectal fistula may result in recurrence, or impairment of continence. The ideal treatment for anorectal fistulae should be associated with low recurrence rates, minimal incontinence and good quality of life. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and morbidity of operative procedures for chronic anal fistula, primary outcomes being recurrence and incontinence. SEARCH STRATEGY: The following databases were searched: EMBASE (Webspirs 5.1, Silver Platter version 2.0, 1950-2009); Medline (Webspirs 5.1, Silver Platter version 2.0, 1950-2009); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2009 issue 4)and the IndMed ( Indian Medline, www.indmed.nic.in) database. We restricted our search to the English literature. The Indian Journal of Surgery was electronically searched (issues between 2003 and vol 71, Oct 2009). We also searched all primary trial registers (Indian, Australian, Chinese, WHO, ISRCTN and American). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials comparing operative procedures for anorectal fistulae were considered. Non randomised trials and cohort studies were examined where data on recurrence and function were available. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers (TJ and BP) independently selected the trials for inclusion in the review. Disagreements were solved by discussion. Where disagreement persisted and published results made data extraction difficult, we obtained clarification from the authors. REVMAN 5 was used for statistical analysis. Quality of the trials were assessed and allowances made for subgroup analysis and prevention of publication bias, using funnel plots if needed. MAIN RESULTS: Ten randomised controlled trials were available for analysis. The quality of included studies was adequate, though in some trials the numbers were small and they were inadequately powered for equivalence or to detect significant differences. Comparisons were made between various modalities of treatments. There were no significant difference in recurrence rates or incontinence rates in any of the studied comparisons except in the case of advancement flaps. There were more recurrences in the glue plus flap group, a significant difference that favoured the flap only technique. It was also noted that Fibrin glue and advancement flap procedures report low incontinence rates.In the review of literature of non-randomised trials, most trials on fibrin glue indicate good healing in simple fistulae with low incontinence rates. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There are very few randomized controlled trials comparing the various modalities of surgery for fistula in ano. While post operative pain, time to healing and discharge from hospital affect quality of life, recurrence and incontinence are the most important. As it turns out, there seems to be no major difference between the various techniques used as far as recurrence rates are concerned.The use of Fibrin glue and advancement flaps are associated with low incontinence rates.There is a crying need for well powered, well conducted randomised controlled trials comparing various modes of treatment of fistula in ano. Newer operations like the anal fistula plug and the LIFT procedure need to be evaluated by randomised clinical trials. Source

Srivastava A.,Christian Medical College
Haemophilia | Year: 2014

Care for people with haemophilia (PWH) has improved much over the last two decades leading to near normal lives for those receiving early regular prophylaxis with clotting factor concentrates (CFC). Yet, there are significant limitations of those practices. In the absence of a well-defined optimal prophylaxis protocol, there are wide variations in practices with a two to threefold difference in doses. In those parts of the world where there are constraints on the availability of CFC, episodic replacement remains the norm for most patients even though it is evident that this does not change the natural history of the disease over a wide range of doses. Suitable prophylactic protocols therefore need to be developed wherever possible at these doses. Finally, there are only limited data on long-term outcomes in haemophilia from anywhere in the world. The practice of documenting specific outcomes as part of the regular evaluation of PWH needs to be established and the appropriate instruments used to assess them. Definitions of clinical events and endpoints of interventions in clinical studies are being developed to help such data collection. The correlations between different replacement therapy protocols and specific outcomes will help define what is best at different dose levels. Such data will allow better health planning and treatment choices throughout the world. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Peedicayil J.,Christian Medical College
Current Pharmaceutical Design | Year: 2014

Cognitive disorders are an important group of disorders affecting the brain for which currently used drugs are often of low efficacy and mainly of symptomatic value. There is increasing evidence suggesting that epigenetic changes in gene expression underlie cognitive disorders. Advances in epigenetics have given rise to a new class of drugs, epigenetic drugs, that reverse epigenetic changes in gene expression. At present most work on epigenetic drugs focuses on two types of drugs: histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, and drugs targeting DNA methylation. This article describes the role of epigenetic drugs in treating cognitive disorders, focusing on Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and Parkinson's disease. Epigenetic drugs may improve the clinical management of patients with cognitive disorders. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

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