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Vellore, India

Leena R.V.,Christian Medial College | Shyamkumar N.K.,Christian Medial College
CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology | Year: 2010

Intact surgical gloves are essential to avoid contact with blood and other body fluids. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of glove perforations during interventional radiological procedures. In this study, a total of 758 gloves used in 94 interventional radiological procedures were examined for perforations. Eleven perforations were encountered, only one of which was of occult type. No significant difference in the frequency of glove perforation was found between the categories with varying time duration. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE) 2009. Source

Kolli V.K.,Christian Medial College | Natarajan K.,Christian Medial College | Isaac B.,Christian Medial College | Selvakumar D.,Christian Medial College | Abraham P.,Christian Medial College
Human and Experimental Toxicology | Year: 2014

The efficacy of methotrexate (MTX), a widely used chemotherapeutic drug, is limited by its gastrointestinal toxicity and the mechanism of which is not clear. The present study investigates the possible role of mitochondrial damage in MTX-induced enteritis. Small intestinal injury was induced in Wistar rats by the administration of 7 mg kg-1 body wt. MTX intraperitoneally for 3 consecutive days. MTX administration resulted in severe small intestinal injury and extensive damage to enterocyte mitochondria. Respiratory control ratio, the single most useful and reliable test of mitochondrial function, and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yll)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction, a measure of cell viability were significantly reduced in all the fractions of MTX-treated rat enterocytes. A massive decrease (nearly 70%) in the activities of complexes II and IV was also observed. The results of the present study suggest that MTX-induced damage to enterocyte mitochondria may play a critical role in enteritis. MTX-induced alteration in mitochondrial structure may cause its dysfunction and decreases the activities of the electron chain complexes. MTX-induced mitochondrial damage can result in reduced adenosine triphosphate synthesis, thereby interfering with nutrient absorption and enterocyte renewal. This derangement may contribute to malabsorption of nutrients, diarrhea, and weight loss seen in patients on MTX chemotherapy. © The Author(s) 2013. Source

Kolli V.K.,Christian Medial College | Kanakasabapathy I.,Christian Medial College | Faith M.,Christian Medial College | Ramamoorthy H.,Christian Medial College | And 3 more authors.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Purpose: One of the major toxic side effects of methotrexate (MTX) is enterocolitis. To date, there is no efficient standard treatment for this side effect. Nitrosative stress is reported to play a critical role in MTX-induced mucositis. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether pretreatment with melatonin, an inhibitor of nitro-oxidative stress, prevents MTX-induced mucositis in rats. Methods: Rats were pretreated with melatonin (20 and 40 mg/kg body weight) i.p. daily 1 h before MTX (7 mg/kg body weight) administration for three consecutive days. After the final dose of MTX, the rats were killed and the small intestines were used for analysis. Results: The small intestines of MTX-treated rats showed moderate to severe injury. The villi were distorted, blunted, and atrophied and focally absent in various segments of the small intestines. Crypt abscesses were also found, suggesting an inflammatory response. Pretreatment with melatonin had a dose-dependent protective effect on MTX-induced mucositis. Morphology was saved to a moderate extent with 20 mg melatonin pretreatment, and near-normal morphology was achieved with 40 mg melatonin pretreatment. Damage to the villi and crypt abscess was reduced. The villi/crypt ratio was almost restored. Melatonin pretreatment protected the small intestines from MTX-induced damage by attenuating nitrosative stress, protein tyrosine nitration and PARP expression. Conclusion: Because of its versatility in protecting against nitro-oxidative stress and reducing inflammation, we suggest that melatonin could be beneficial in ameliorating MTX-induced enteritis in humans. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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