Christian Brothers University is the oldest collegiate degree-granting institution in the city of Memphis. The university is run by the Christian Brothers, a Roman Catholic religious order founded by St. John Baptist de la Salle, the patron saint of teachers. It is located in Midtown Memphis near the Liberty Bowl Memorial Stadium. Wikipedia.
Roy S.,University of Tennessee Health Science Center |
Watkins N.,Christian Brothers University |
Heck D.,University of Tennessee Health Science Center
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a well-recognized form of inherited mental retardation, caused by a mutation in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (Fmr1) gene. The gene is located on the long arm of the X chromosome and encodes fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Absence of FMRP in fragile X patients as well as in Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice results, among other changes, in abnormal dendritic spine formation and altered synaptic plasticity in the neocortex and hippocampus. Clinical features of FXS include cognitive impairment, anxiety, abnormal social interaction, mental retardation, motor coordination and speech articulation deficits. Mouse pups generate ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) when isolated from their mothers. Whether those social ultrasonic vocalizations are deficient in mouse models of FXS is unknown. Here we compared isolation-induced USVs generated by pups of Fmr1-KO mice with those of their wild type (WT) littermates. Though the total number of calls was not significantly different between genotypes, a detailed analysis of 10 different categories of calls revealed that loss of Fmr1 expression in mice causes limited and call-type specific deficits in ultrasonic vocalization: the carrier frequency of flat calls was higher, the percentage of downward calls was lower and that the frequency range of complex calls was wider in Fmr1-KO mice compared to their WT littermates. © 2012 Roy et al.
Eubig P.A.,Urbana University |
Noe T.E.,Urbana University |
Floresco S.B.,University of British Columbia |
Sable J.J.,Christian Brothers University |
Schantz S.L.,Urbana University
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior | Year: 2014
The use of animal models to investigate experimental questions about impulsive behavior can provide valuable insight into problems that affect human health. The delay-discounting paradigm involves subjects choosing between smaller reinforcers delivered immediately and larger reinforcers that are delivered after a delay. This is an important experimental paradigm for examining impulsive choice in both laboratory species and humans. However, a shortcoming of previously published delay-discounting studies in animals is that typically only males were studied, reducing the applicability of these studies to human populations. In the present study, both female and male adult Long-Evans rats were trained to perform a delay-discounting task, with delays of 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 s before delivery of the larger reinforcer. Because dopaminergic signaling is important in mediating this task, the effects of d-amphetamine and the dopamine receptor antagonist, cis-flupenthixol, on task performance were then examined. The main experimental measure was percent larger-reinforcer choice, which was defined as the percentage of experimental trials at each delay in which the delayed, larger reinforcer was chosen. There was no sex difference in percent larger-reinforcer choice during baseline performance of the task. However, d-amphetamine administration disrupted choice in females, as evidenced by < 80% larger-reinforcer choice in half of the females, but none of the males, at 0.5 mg/kg. d-Amphetamine also differentially altered the latency to choose between immediate versus delayed reinforcers in females compared to males. In contrast, cis-flupenthixol did not have a sex-related effect on percent larger-reinforcer choice. These findings parallel the sex differences in response to amphetamine seen in human delay-discounting studies and underscore the importance of evaluating sex-based differences in baseline performance and in response to pharmacologic agents when utilizing animal models. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Haught P.,Christian Brothers University
Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics | Year: 2010
This essay offers a critical assessment of environmental virtue ethics (EVE). Finding an environmental ethical analogy with Hume's critique of the sensible knave, I argue that EVE is limited in much the same way as morality is on the Humean view. Advocates of nonanthropocentrism will find it difficult to engage those whose virtues comport them to anthropocentrism. Nonetheless, EVE is able to ground confidence in nonanthropocentric virtues by explicating specific key virtues, thereby holding open the possibility of bridging the motivational gap between anthropocentrism and nonanthropocentrism. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Joglekar M.V.,Duke University |
Ware J.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences |
Xu J.,University of Massachusetts Lowell |
Fitzgerald M.E.C.,Christian Brothers University |
And 2 more authors.
Platelets | Year: 2013
Venous thromboembolism is a leading cause of death from cardiovascular disease. Despite the importance of the glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX/von Willebrand factor (vWF) axis in arterial thrombosis, its requirement in venous, not venule thrombosis in response to endothelial injury (not stenosis or stasis) is uncharacterized. GPIbα-vWF participation in FeCl3-induced thrombus formation was evaluated in the inferior vena cava (IVC). Stable, occlusive thrombus formation in response to FeCl3-induced injury of the IVC was studied. FeCl3 (20% FeCl3, 10 minutes)-induced occlusive thrombosis required platelets as confirmed by a lack of occlusion in thrombocytopenic mice, and stable occlusion in control animals. No IVC occlusion was observed using GPIbα-deficient animals, a model of the human Bernard-Soulier syndrome (BSS). Transgenic IL-4R/GPIbα mice (lack murine GPIbα, but express the extracellular domain of the human interleukin (IL-4 receptor fused to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of human GPIbα) were studied to determine if the absence of IVC occlusion in the BSS mouse was caused by GPIbα extracellular domain deficiency rather than platelet BSS phenotype associated abnormalities. As with GPIbα knock-out mice, no occlusion was observed in the IVC of IL-4R/GPIbα mice. The IVC of vWF-deficient mice also failed to occlude in response to FeCl3 treatment. The chimeric protein GPIbα(2V)-Fc prevented occlusion, demonstrating that GPIbα-vWF A1 domain interaction is required for FeCl3-induced stable thrombus formation in the IVC. Therefore, FeCl3-induced stable, occlusive thrombus formation in the IVC is platelet, and apparently GPIbα-vWF interaction dependent, despite the large diameter and low venous flow rate in the IVC. © 2013 Informa UK Ltd.
Haught P.,Christian Brothers University
Environmental Ethics | Year: 2011
Environmental virtue ethics (EVE) can be applied to environmental justice. Environmental justice refers to the concern that many poor and nonwhite communities bear a disproportionate burden of risk of exposure to environmental hazards compared to white and/or economically higher-class communities. The most common applied ethical response to this concern-that is, to environmental injustice-is the call for an expanded application of human rights, such as requirements for clean air and water. The virtue-oriented approach can be made consistent with such calls, but there are broader applications as well that generate unique strategies for moral responsiveness and for expanding the role of moral philosophers in civic affairs.