Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital

Johannesburg, South Africa

Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital

Johannesburg, South Africa
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News Article | November 27, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

The first HIV vaccine efficacy study to launch anywhere in seven years is now testing whether an experimental vaccine regimen safely prevents HIV infection among South African adults. The study, called HVTN 702, involves a new version of the only HIV vaccine candidate ever shown to provide some protection against the virus. HVTN 702 aims to enroll 5,400 men and women, making it the largest and most advanced HIV vaccine clinical trial to take place in South Africa, where more than 1,000 people become infected with HIV every day. "If deployed alongside our current armory of proven HIV prevention tools, a safe and effective vaccine could be the final nail in the coffin for HIV," said Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health and a co-funder of the trial. "Even a moderately effective vaccine would significantly decrease the burden of HIV disease over time in countries and populations with high rates of HIV infection, such as South Africa." The experimental vaccine regimen being tested in HVTN 702 is based on the one investigated in the RV144 clinical trial in Thailand led by the U.S. Military HIV Research Program and the Thai Ministry of Health. The Thai trial delivered landmark results in 2009 when it found for the first time that a vaccine could prevent HIV infection, albeit modestly. The new regimen aims to provide greater and more sustained protection than the RV144 regimen and has been adapted to the HIV subtype that predominates in southern Africa, a region that includes the country of South Africa. "The people of South Africa are making history by conducting and participating in the first HIV vaccine efficacy study to build on the results of the Thai trial," said HVTN 702 Protocol Chair Glenda Gray, M.B.B.C.H., F.C.Paed. (SA). "HIV has taken a devastating toll in South Africa, but now we begin a scientific exploration that could hold great promise for our country. If an HIV vaccine were found to work in South Africa, it could dramatically alter the course of the pandemic." Dr. Gray is president and chief executive officer of the South African Medical Research Council; research professor of pediatrics at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg; and a founding director of the Perinatal HIV Research Unit at Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital in Soweto, South Africa. Co-chairing the protocol with Dr. Gray are Linda-Gail Bekker, M.D., Ph.D.; Fatima Laher, M.D.; and Mookho Malahleha, M.B.Ch.B., M.P.H. Dr. Bekker is deputy director of the Desmond Tutu HIV Centre at the University of Cape Town and chief operating officer of the Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation in Cape Town, South Africa. Dr. Laher is a director of the Perinatal HIV Research Unit at Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital. Dr. Malahleha is deputy director of Setshaba Research Centre in Soshanguve, South Africa. The experimental vaccine regimen tested in the Thai trial was found to be 31.2 percent effective at preventing HIV infection over the 3.5-year follow-up after vaccination. In the HVTN 702 study, the design, schedule and components of the RV144 vaccine regimen have been modified in an attempt to increase the magnitude and duration of vaccine-elicited protective immune responses. As the regulatory sponsor of HVTN 702, NIAID is responsible for all operational aspects of this pivotal Phase 2b/3 trial, which is enrolling HIV-uninfected, sexually active men and women aged 18 to 35 years. The NIAID-funded HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) is conducting the trial at 15 sites across South Africa. Results are expected in late 2020. HVTN 702 begins just months after interim results were reported for HVTN 100, its predecessor clinical trial, which found that the new vaccine regimen was safe for the 252 study participants and induced comparable immune responses to those reported in RV144. HVTN 100 and HVTN 702 are part of a larger HIV vaccine research endeavor led by the Pox-Protein Public-Private Partnership, or P5--a diverse group of public and private organizations committed to building on the success of the RV144 trial. The P5 aims to produce an HIV vaccine that could have a significant public health benefit in southern Africa and to advance scientists' understanding of the immune responses associated with preventing HIV infection. P5 members include NIAID, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the South African Medical Research Council, HVTN, Sanofi Pasteur, GSK and the U.S. Military HIV Research Program. The HVTN 702 vaccine regimen consists of two experimental vaccines: a canarypox vector-based vaccine called ALVAC-HIV and a two-component gp120 protein subunit vaccine with an adjuvant to enhance the body's immune response to the vaccine. The vaccines do not contain HIV and therefore do not pose any danger of HIV infection to study participants. Both ALVAC-HIV (supplied by Sanofi Pasteur) and the protein vaccine (supplied by GSK) have been modified from the versions used in RV144 to be specific to HIV subtype C, the predominant HIV subtype in southern Africa. Additionally, the protein subunit vaccine in HVTN 702 is combined with MF59 (also supplied by GSK), a different adjuvant than the one used in RV144, in the hope of generating a more robust immune response. Finally, the HVTN 702 vaccine regimen includes booster shots at the one-year mark in an effort to prolong the early protective effect observed in RV144. The study volunteers are being randomly assigned to receive either the investigational vaccine regimen or a placebo. All study participants will receive a total of five injections over one year. The safety of HVTN 702 study participants will be closely monitored throughout the trial, and participants will be offered the standard of care for preventing HIV infection. Study participants who become infected with HIV in the community will be referred to local medical providers for care and treatment and will be counseled on how to reduce their risk of transmitting the virus. HVTN 702 is one of many NIAID-supported HIV prevention trials in progress in southern Africa. These include the AMP Studies, which are testing infusions of the VRC01 antibody; the open-label HOPE study, which is examining a dapivirine vaginal ring; and HPTN 076 and 077, which are studying long-acting injectable rilpivirine and cabotegravir, respectively. NIAID conducts and supports research--at NIH, throughout the United States, and worldwide--to study the causes of infectious and immune-mediated diseases, and to develop better means of preventing, diagnosing and treating these illnesses. News releases, fact sheets and other NIAID-related materials are available on the NIAID website. About the National Institutes of Health (NIH): NIH, the nation's medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit http://www. .


Vidyasagar D.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Velaphi S.,Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital | Bhat V.B.,JIPMER
Neonatology | Year: 2011

Background: Since the first successful report of surfactant replacement therapy (SRT) in infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), numerous randomized clinical trials have shown that SRT reduces mortality and morbidity in RDS. Surfactant is now a standard therapy for RDS. However, the use of SRT in the developing world has been extremely slow. Objective: The objective of this paper is to review the published information regarding the usage and barriers encountered in the use of SRT in developing countries. Methods: We reviewed the available literature and also gathered information from countries with a high burden of prematurity and high infant mortality rate regarding replacement therapy and the barriers to use of SRT. Results: We reviewed the available literature and found that developing countries bear a high burden of prematurity and RDS that contribute to high neonatal and infant mortality rates. Based on the effectiveness of SRT in RDS, surfactant preparations were included in the Essential Drug List of WHO in 2008. However, the use of SRT in developing countries is still limited because of (1) high cost, (2) lack of skilled personnel to administer SRT, and (3) lack of support systems after the SRT. The cost of SRT may exceed the per-capita GNP (300-500 USD) in some countries. Data from India and South Africa suggests that SRT is limited to rescue therapy in babies with potential for better survival, usually >28 weeks' gestation. Recent studies show that infants with RDS respond well to initial continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) followed by SRT for those who do not respond. Conclusions: In developing countries, CPAP may be used as the primary mode of management of RDS. SRT may be reserved for non-responders to CPAP. Alternate simpler methods of delivery of surfactant (aerosol technique) are also being explored. There is a need for further studies to develop and assess efficient and less expensive methods of application of CPAP and SRT in developing countries. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Bonanno F.G.,Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital
Journal of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock | Year: 2012

Which anesthesia for patients with critical airway Safe and effective analgesia and anesthesia in critical airway is a skilled task especially after severe maxillofacial injury combined with head injury and hemorrhagic shock. If on one side sedation is wanted, on the other hand it may worsen the airway and hemodynamic situation to a point where hypoventilation and decrease of blood pressure, common side-effect of many opioids, may prejudice the patient's level of consciousness and hemodynamic compensation, compounding an already critical situation. What to do when endotracheal intubation fails and blood is trickling down the airways in an unconscious patient or when a conscious patient has to sit up to breathe Which surgical airway in critical airway Comparative studies among the various methods of emergency surgical airway would be unethical; furthermore, operator's training and experience is relevant for indications and performance.


Bonanno F.G.,Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital
Journal of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock | Year: 2012

A shift of approach from 'clinics trying to fit physiology' to the one of 'physiology to clinics', with interpretation of the clinical phenomena from their physiological bases to the tip of the clinical iceberg, and a management exclusively based on modulation of physiology, is finally surging as the safest and most efficacious philosophy in hemorrhagic shock. ATLS classification and recommendations on hemorrhagic shock are not helpful because antiphysiological and potentially misleading. Hemorrhagic shock needs to be reclassified in the direction of usefulness and timing of intervention: in particular its assessment and management need to be tailored to physiology.


Cilliers A.,Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Rheumatic heart disease remains an important cause of acquired heart disease in developing countries. Although the prevention of rheumatic fever and the management of recurrences is well established, the optimal management of active rheumatic carditis is still unclear. This is an update of a review published in 2003 and previously updated in 2009. To assess the effects of anti-inflammatory agents such as aspirin, corticosteroids, immunoglobulin and pentoxifylline for preventing or reducing further heart valve damage in patients with acute rheumatic fever. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials on The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2011), MEDLINE (1966 to Aug 2011), EMBASE (1998 to Sept 2011), LILACS (1982 to Sept 2011), Index Medicus (1950 to April 2001) and references lists of identified studies. No language restrictions were applied. Randomised controlled trials comparing anti-inflammatory agents (e.g. aspirin, steroids, immunoglobulins, pentoxifylline) with placebo or controls, or comparing any of the anti-inflammatory agents with one another, in adults and children with acute rheumatic fever diagnosed according to the Jones, or modified Jones criteria. The presence of cardiac disease one year after treatment was the major outcome criteria selected. Two reviewers independently extracted data. Risk of bias was assessed using methodology outlined in the Cochrane handbook. No new studies were included in this update. Eight randomised controlled trials involving 996 people were included. Several steroidal agents corticotrophin, cortisone, hydrocortisone, dexamethasone and prednisone, and intravenous immunoglobulin were compared to aspirin, placebo or no treatment in the various studies. Six of the trials were conducted between 1950 and 1965, one study was done in 1990, and the final study was published in 2001. Overall there was no significant difference in the risk of cardiac disease at one year between the corticosteroid-treated and aspirin-treated groups (six studies, 907 participants, relative risk 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 1.15). Similarly, use of prednisone (two studies, 212 participants, relative risk 1.13, 95% confidence interval 0.52 to 2.45) compared to aspirin did not reduce the risk of developing heart disease after one year. Adverse events were not reported in five studies. The three studies reporting on adverse events all reported substantial adverse events. However, all results should be interpreted with caution due to the age of the studies and to substantial risk of bias. There is little evidence of benefit from using corticosteroids or intravenous immunoglobulins to reduce the risk of heart valve lesions in patients with acute rheumatic fever. The antiquity of most of the trials restricted adequate statistical analysis of the data and acceptable assessment of clinical outcomes by current standards. Additionally there was substantial risk of bias, so results should be viewed with caution. New randomised controlled trials in patients with acute rheumatic fever to assess the effects of corticosteroids such as oral prednisone and intravenous methylprednisolone, and other new anti-inflammatory agents are warranted. Advances in echocardiography will allow for more objective and precise assessments of cardiac outcomes.


Thandrayen K.,Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital | Pettifor J.M.,Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital
Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America | Year: 2012

The mother is the major source of circulating 25-OHD concentrations in the young infant. Thus maternal vitamin D status is an important factor in determining the vitamin D status of the infant and his/her risk of developing vitamin D deficiency and infantile nutritional rickets. There is evidence that the supplementation recommendations, particularly for pregnant and lactating women, may be inadequate to ensure vitamin D sufficiency in these groups. Thus there needs to be a wide spread and concerted effort to ensure daily supplementation of breastfed and other infants at high risk with vitamin D 400 IU from birth and pregnant women in high risk communities with at least 600 IU. Future studies are required to determine the optimal doses of vitamin D supplementation needed during pregnancy and lactation; and for normalizing vitamin D stores in infancy to reduce the prevalence of infantile nutritional rickets. Furthermore, operational research studies need to be conducted to understand the best methods of implementing supplementation programs and the factors that are likely to promote their success. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Bonanno F.G.,Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital
Journal of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock | Year: 2012

Shock as reaction to life-threatening condition needs to be reclassified in a timely and more scientific synopsis. It is not possible or beneficial any longer to avoid a holistic approach in critical illness. Semantics of critical illness has often been unfriendly in the literature and a simplification with the elimination of conceptual pleonasms and misnomers under the exclusive light of physiology and physiopathology would be advantageous. Speaking one language to describe the same phenomenon worldwide is essential for understanding; moreover, it increases focus on characterization and significance of the phenomena. © 2010 Expert Reviews Ltd.


Bonanno F.G.,Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital
Journal of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock | Year: 2012

An algorithm on the indications and timing for a surgical airway in emergency as such cannot be drawn due to the multiplicity of variables and the inapplicability in the context of life-threatening critical emergency, where human brain elaborates decisions better in cluster rather than in binary fashion. In particular, in emergency or urgent scenarios, there is no clear or established consensus as to specifically who should receive a tracheostomy as a life-saving procedure; and more importantly, when. The two classical indications for emergency tracheostomy (laryngeal injury and failure to secure airway with endotracheal intubation or cricothyroidotomy) are too generic and encompass a broad spectrum of possibilities. In literature, specific indications for emergency tracheostomy are scattered and are biased, partially comprehensive, not clearly described or not homogeneously gathered. The review highlights the indications and timing for an emergency surgical airway and gives recommendations on which surgical airway method to use in critical airway. © 2010 Expert Reviews Ltd.


Bonanno F.G.,Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital
Journal of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock | Year: 2011

The clinical aspects of shock syndromes are described from their inception as compensated physiology to a stage of decompensation. The clinical significance of hypotension, fluid-responsive and non fluid-responsive hypotension, is discussed. Untimely or inadequate treatment leads to persistent subclinical shock despite adjustments of the macrohemodynamic variables, which evolves in a second hit of physiological deterioration if not aggressively managed. Irreversible shock ensues as consequence of direct hit or as result of inadequate or delayed treatment and is characterized by drug-resistant hypotension.


Bonanno F.G.,Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital
Journal of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock | Year: 2011

Shock syndromes are of three types: cardiogenic, hemorrhagic and inflammatory. Hemorrhagic shock has its initial deranged macro-hemodynamic variables in the blood volume and venous return. In cardiogenic shock there is a primary pump failure that has cardiac output/mean arterial pressure as initial deranged variables. In Inflammatory Shock it is the microcirculation that is mainly affected, while the initial deranged macrocirculation variable is the total peripheral resistance hit by systemic inflammatory response.

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