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Orléans, France

Hocqueloux L.,Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales | Causse X.,Service dHepato gastro enterologie | Valery A.,CHR dOrleans La Source | Jandali J.-C.,Service de pediatrie | And 9 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2015

Primary Epstein-Barr virus infection (PEI) is acquired increasingly later in life in developed countries, involving a growing number of adults. No studies have examined the effect of age on PEI. We conducted a prospective, single-centre, noninterventional survey to assess the clinical and economic effects of PEI care according to age. We included all serology-confirmed cases observed in all departments of a large regional hospital. Clinical and biologic data, therapeutics and costs of care were examined. Over a 6-year period, we included 292 subjects (148 children and 144 adults) with a median age of 15.4 years (range 9 months to 79 years). Adults were hospitalized more often (83% vs. 60%) and for longer periods of time (median 4 days vs. 2 days) than children (p ≤ 0.0001 for both). Two adults required a secondary transfer into the intensive care unit, although no children did. Typically, adults showed higher levels of activated lymphocytes and liver abnormalities. They also required the use of systemic corticosteroids more often (45% vs. 23%, p < 0.0001) and for longer periods of time (median 7 days vs. 3 days, p 0.02) than children. Overall, the costs were significantly higher for adults than for children (median, €1940 vs. €1130, p < 0.0001), mainly because of the frequency and duration of hospitalizations. Age increases the immune response and clinical severity of PEI, resulting in substantial additional costs for the community. Better recognition of the disease in adults could shorten the average length of hospital stay. © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

Jaspard M.,CHR dOrleans La Source | Le Moal G.,CHU de Poitiers | Saberan-Roncato M.,CH de La Rochelle | Plainchamp D.,CHU de Poitiers | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: Several countries have recently recommended the expansion of anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing, including self-testing with rapid tests using oral fluid (OF). Several tests have been proposed for at-home use, but their diagnostic accuracy has not been fully evaluated. Objective: To evaluate the performance of 5 rapid diagnostic tests for the detection of anti-HIV-1/2 antibodies, with 4 testing OF and 1 testing whole blood. Methods: Prospective multi-center study in France. HIV-infected adults and HIV-uninfected controls were systematically screened with 5 at-home HIV tests using either OF or finger-stick blood (FSB) specimens. Four OF tests (OraQuick Advance Rapid HIV-1/2, Chembio DPP HIV 1/2 Assay, test A, and test B) and one FSB test (Chembio Sure Check HIV1/2 Assay) were performed by trained health workers and compared with laboratory tests. Results: In total, 179 HIV-infected patients (M/F sex ratio: 1.3) and 60 controls were included. Among the HIV-infected patients, 67.6% had an undetectable HIV viral load in their plasma due to antiretroviral therapy. Overall, the sensitivities of the OF tests were 87.2%, 88.3%, 58.9%, and 28% (for OraQuick, DPP, test A, and test B, respectively) compared with 100% for the FSB test Sure Check (p<0.0001 for all comparisons). The OraQuick and DPP OF tests' sensitivities were significantly lower than that of the FSB-based Sure Check (p<0.05). The sensitivities of the OF tests increased among the patients with a detectable HIV viral load (>50 copies/mL), reaching 94.8%, 96.5%, 90%, and 53.1% (for OraQuick, DPP, test A, and test B, respectively). The specificities of the four OF tests were 98.3%, 100%, 100%, and 87.5%, respectively, compared with 100% for the FSB test. Conclusion: An evaluation of candidates for HIV self-testing revealed unexpected differences in performance of the rapid tests: the FSB test showed a far greater reliability than OF tests. © 2014 Jaspard et al.

Prazuck T.,CHR dOrleans La Source | Chaillon A.,Laboratory of Virology | Avettand-Fenoel V.,University of Paris Descartes | Caplan A.-L.,CHR dOrleans La Source | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Objectives:To assess the impact of long-term combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) on HIV-RNA and HIV-DNA levels in cervicovaginal secretions of HIV-1-infected women with sustained undetectable plasma RNA viral load (PVL); to explore factors predictive of residual viral shedding; and to evaluate the risk of heterosexual transmission.Methods:Women with undetectable PVL (<50 copies/mL) for >6 months were included in this cross-sectional study. HIV-RNA and HIV-DNA were measured in blood and cervicovaginal lavage fluid (CVL). Women were systematically tested for genital infections. The risk of transmission to male partners during unprotected intercourse was estimated.Results:Eighty-one women composed the study population: all had HIV-RNA <40 copies/mL in CVL. HIV-DNA was detectable in CVL of 29/78 patients (37%). There was a weak positive correlation between HIV-DNA levels in PBMCs and CVL (r = 0.20; p = 0.08). In multivariate analysis, two factors were associated with HIV-DNA detection in CVL: previous AIDS-defining illnesses (OR = 11; 95%CI = 2-61) and current residual viremia (20

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