Murfreesboro, NC, United States
Murfreesboro, NC, United States

Chowan University is a small private university of about 1200 students located in Murfreesboro, North Carolina, United States. The school is affiliated with the Baptist State Convention of North Carolina, though it accepts students of all backgrounds. It is the second-oldest Baptist school in North Carolina. The University offers both Associate's and Bachelor's degrees in 40 academic disciplines and is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. Wikipedia.

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Pearson M.R.,University of New Mexico | Murphy E.M.,Old Dominion University | Doane A.N.,Chowan University
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2013

The present study examined the predictive effects of five impulsivity-like traits (Premeditation, Perseverance, Sensation Seeking, Negative Urgency, and Positive Urgency) on driving outcomes (driving errors, driving lapses, driving violations, cell phone driving, traffic citations, and traffic collisions). With a convenience sample of 266 college student drivers, we found that each of the impulsivity-like traits was related to multiple risky driving outcomes. Positive Urgency (tendency to act impulsively when experiencing negative affect) was the most robust predictor of risky driving outcomes. Positive Urgency is a relatively newly conceptualized impulsivity-like trait that was not examined in the driving literature previously, suggesting a strong need to further examine its role as a personality trait related to risky driving. These findings generally support the multidimensional assessment of impulsivity-like traits, and they specifically support the addition of Positive Urgency to a list of risk factors for risky driving behaviors. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Day F.P.,Old Dominion University | Schroeder R.E.,Old Dominion University | Stover D.B.,U.S. Department of Energy | Brown A.L.P.,Old Dominion University | And 8 more authors.
New Phytologist | Year: 2013

Uncertainty surrounds belowground plant responses to rising atmospheric CO2 because roots are difficult to measure, requiring frequent monitoring as a result of fine root dynamics and long-term monitoring as a result of sensitivity to resource availability. We report belowground plant responses of a scrub-oak ecosystem in Florida exposed to 11 yr of elevated atmospheric CO2 using open-top chambers. We measured fine root production, turnover and biomass using minirhizotrons, coarse root biomass using ground-penetrating radar and total root biomass using soil cores. Total root biomass was greater in elevated than in ambient plots, and the absolute difference was larger than the difference aboveground. Fine root biomass fluctuated by more than a factor of two, with no unidirectional temporal trend, whereas leaf biomass accumulated monotonically. Strong increases in fine root biomass with elevated CO2 occurred after fire and hurricane disturbance. Leaf biomass also exhibited stronger responses following hurricanes. Responses after fire and hurricanes suggest that disturbance promotes the growth responses of plants to elevated CO2. Increased resource availability associated with disturbance (nutrients, water, space) may facilitate greater responses of roots to elevated CO2. The disappearance of responses in fine roots suggests limits on the capacity of root systems to respond to CO2 enrichment. © 2013 The Authors. © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

Doane A.N.,Chowan University | Boothe L.G.,University of Virginia | Pearson M.R.,University of New Mexico | Kelley M.L.,Old Dominion University
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2016

The present study tested Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) as an explanation of electronic communication safe behavioral intentions and behaviors and cyberbullying victimization. We recruited 577 college students who completed a battery of surveys examining PMT-based constructs and cyberbullying victimization. We found that higher perceived susceptibility to cyberbullying victimization was associated with lower electronic communication safe behavioral intentions, higher electronic communication risky behaviors, and higher cyberbullying victimization. In addition, higher perceived severity of cyberbullying victimization was associated with higher electronic communication safe behavioral intentions and lower cyberbullying victimization. Furthermore, higher response efficacy and self-efficacy regarding electronic communication safe behaviors were predictive of higher electronic communication safe behavioral intentions. The PMT-based model accounted for over 30% of the variability in cyberbullying victimization. PMT constructs may be promising targets for interventions designed to decrease the incidence of cyberbullying victimization. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Doane A.N.,Chowan University | Pearson M.R.,University of New Mexico | Kelley M.L.,Old Dominion University
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2014

The present study tested the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) as an explanation for cyberbullying perpetration among 375 (128 male, 246 female) college students. Empathy toward cyberbullying victims was also included in the models. Participants completed the cyberbullying perpetration scale of the Cyberbullying Experiences Survey (Doane, Kelley, Chiang, & Padilla, 2013) that assesses four types of cyberbullying (deception, malice, public humiliation, and unwanted contact). Across all four models, results showed that lower empathy toward cyberbullying victims predicted more favorable attitudes toward cyberbullying perpetration, more favorable attitudes toward cyberbullying predicted higher intentions to cyberbully, and higher cyberbullying intentions predicted more frequent perpetration of cyberbullying behaviors. Injunctive norms regarding cyberbullying (e.g., perception of peers' approval of cyberbullying perpetration) predicted intentions to engage in malice and unwanted contact behaviors. The results demonstrate that the TRA is a useful framework for understanding cyberbullying perpetration. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PubMed | Chowan University, University of New Mexico and Old Dominion University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Aggressive behavior | Year: 2016

Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of cyberbullying prevention/intervention programs. The goals of the present study were to develop a Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)-based video program to increase cyberbullying knowledge (1) and empathy toward cyberbullying victims (2), reduce favorable attitudes toward cyberbullying (3), decrease positive injunctive (4) and descriptive norms about cyberbullying (5), and reduce cyberbullying intentions (6) and cyberbullying behavior (7). One hundred sixty-seven college students were randomly assigned to an online video cyberbullying prevention program or an assessment-only control group. Immediately following the program, attitudes and injunctive norms for all four types of cyberbullying behavior (i.e., unwanted contact, malice, deception, and public humiliation), descriptive norms for malice and public humiliation, empathy toward victims of malice and deception, and cyberbullying knowledge significantly improved in the experimental group. At one-month follow-up, malice and public humiliation behavior, favorable attitudes toward unwanted contact, deception, and public humiliation, and injunctive norms for public humiliation were significantly lower in the experimental than the control group. Cyberbullying knowledge was significantly higher in the experimental than the control group. These findings demonstrate a brief cyberbullying video is capable of improving, at one-month follow-up, cyberbullying knowledge, cyberbullying perpetration behavior, and TRA constructs known to predict cyberbullying perpetration. Considering the low cost and ease with which a video-based prevention/intervention program can be delivered, this type of approach should be considered to reduce cyberbullying.

Dillon R.T.,College of Charleston | Wethington A.R.,Chowan University | Lydeard C.,American University of Washington | Lydeard C.,National Science Foundation
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2011

Background: The cosmopolitan freshwater snail Physa acuta has recently found widespread use as a model organism for the study of mating systems and reproductive allocation. Mitochondrial DNA phylogenies suggest that Physa carolinae, recently described from the American southeast, is a sister species of P. acuta. The divergence of the acuta/carolinae ancestor from the more widespread P. pomilia appears to be somewhat older, and the split between a hypothetical acuta/carolinae/pomilia ancestor and P. gyrina appears older still. Results: Here we report the results of no-choice mating experiments yielding no evidence of hybridization between gyrina and any of four other populations (pomilia, carolinae, Philadelphia acuta, or Charleston acuta), nor between pomilia and carolinae. Crosses between pomilia and both acuta populations yielded sterile F1 progeny with reduced viability, while crosses between carolinae and both acuta populations yielded sterile F1 hybrids of normal viability. A set of mate-choice tests also revealed significant sexual isolation between gyrina and all four of our other Physa populations, between pomilia and carolinae, and between pomilia and Charleston acuta, but not between pomilia and the acuta population from Philadelphia, nor between carolinae and either acuta population. These observations are consistent with the origin of hybrid sterility prior to hybrid inviability, and a hypothesis that speciation between pomilia and acuta may have been reinforced by selection for prezygotic reproductive isolation in sympatry. Conclusions: We propose a two-factor model for the evolution of postzygotic reproductive incompatibility in this set of five Physa populations consistent with the Dobzhansky-Muller model of speciation, and a second two-factor model for the evolution of sexual incompatibility. Under these models, species trees may be said to correspond with gene trees in American populations of the freshwater snail, Physa. © 2011 Dillon et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Yoon S.,Chowan University | Buckworth J.,Ohio State University | Focht B.,Ohio State University | Ko B.,East Carolina University
Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology | Year: 2013

This study used a path analysis approach to examine the relationship between feelings of energy, exerciserelated self-efficacy beliefs, and exercise participation. A cross-sectional mailing survey design was used to measure feelings of physical and mental energy, task and scheduling self-efficacy beliefs, and voluntary moderate and vigorous exercise participation in 368 healthy, full-time undergraduate students (mean age = 21.43 ± 2.32 years). The path analysis revealed that the hypothesized path model had a strong fit to the study data. The path model showed that feelings of physical energy had significant direct effects on task and scheduling self-efficacy beliefs as well as exercise behaviors. In addition, scheduling self-efficacy had direct effects on moderate and vigorous exercise participation. However, there was no significant direct relationship between task self-efficacy and exercise participation. The path model also revealed that scheduling self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship between feelings of physical energy and exercise participation. © 2013 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Cho S.K.,Iowa State University | Kang I.-H.,DuPont Company | Carr T.,Chowan University | Hannapel D.J.,Iowa State University
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2012

Heterografting and RNA transport experiments have demonstrated the long-distance mobility of StBEL5 RNA, its role in controlling tuber formation, and the function of the 503-nt 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of the RNA in mediating transport. Because the 3′ UTR of StBEL5 is a key element in regulating several aspects of RNA metabolism, a potato leaf cDNA library was screened using the 3′ UTR of StBEL5 as bait in the yeast three-hybrid (Y3H) system to identify putative partner RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). From this screen, 116 positive cDNA clones were isolated based on nutrient selection, HIS3 activation, and lacZ induction and were sequenced and classified. Thirty-five proteins that were predicted to function in either RNA- or DNA-binding were selected from this pool. Seven were monitored for their expression profiles and further evaluated for their capacity to bind to the 3′ UTR of StBEL5 using β-galactosidase assays in the Y3H system and RNA gel-shift assays. Among the final selections were two RBPs, a zinc finger protein, and one protein, StLSH10, from a family involved in light signaling. In this study, the Y3H system is presented as a valuable tool to screen and verify interactions between target RNAs and putative RBPs. These results can shed light on the dynamics and composition of plant RNA-protein complexes that function to regulate RNA metabolism. © 2012 Cho, Kang, Carr and Hannapel.

Ko B.,East Carolina University | Boswell B.,East Carolina University | Yoon S.,Chowan University
Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy | Year: 2015

Background: Recognition of the importance of the development of intercultural competence (ICC) has placed intense pressure on teacher education programs to infuse a global perspective into their programs. Several studies have proposed integration of global elements into teacher education programs. Although the use of online tools for telecollaboration with students and teacher educators from other countries has positively influenced certain aspects of students' ICC, there have been limited research studies which have focused on promoting ICC in physical education (PE). Purpose: This study was designed to examine the development of the ICC of PE graduate students after completion of a seven-week global link with Korean students. Deardorff's Process Model of ICC served as the foundation for gaining understanding of the development of ICC. Student responses were examined in terms of the following: types of learning, perspectives toward partners and their cultures, influences on teaching practices, and presence of the elements included in the Process Model of ICC. Participants and setting: The 14 Caucasian Americans (F = 5, M = 9) were participated in this study. They were enrolled in one distance education graduate course focusing on professional issues in PE offered by one of the higher education institutions in the USA. Participants were engaged in a global link project in which each participant was matched with one Korean student. All participants held a teacher license, and 10 participants were teachers with 2–11 years of K-12 teaching experience. The four remaining participants were employed in university graduate assistance (N = 2) or community youth sport programs (N = 2). Data collection: Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected. Qualitative data included open-ended questionnaires, which were collected twice, and reflection reports, which were collected at the end of the global experience. Quantitative data were collected prior to and after the global link project using the Cultural Intelligence Scale (CQS). The global link project consisted of five weeks of individualized interactions and two weeks of group video conferencing. Participants were engaged in individualized interactions with their partners through technology tools (e.g. email, social networking, etc.) and via presentations that focused on particular educational issues in PE through video conferencing. Data analysis: Qualitative and quantitative data were analyzed by using content analysis and multivariate analysis of variance, respectively. Triangulation across data sources and between the investigators, peer review and debriefing, and member checking between investigators and participants were utilized to maintain trustworthiness and credibility of the findings. Findings: Four themes emerged from the qualitative findings: (a) openness to other cultures, (b) expanding cultural knowledge, (c) clarifying cultural views, and (d) accommodating behaviors. The CQS data showed improvement in all dimensions (e.g. motivation, knowledge, and behavior) except the metacognitive dimension and significant improvement in the behavior dimension after the seven weeks of global link experiences. Discussion: The global link experiences promoted development of ICC including critical elements of ICC such as: attitude, knowledge/skills, and behaviors. This study recommends university teacher educators actively revise their program to incorporate a global view. © 2013 Association for Physical Education.

Functional analysis of the Arabidopsis heterotrimer G-protein beta subunit, AGB1 and putative AGB1-interacting proteins in mediating stress responses

In response to environmental stress, plant growth, development and/or yield can be adversely affected. Recently, the Arabidopsis thaliana heterotrimer G-protein beta subunit (AGB1) has been linked to Arabidopsis seed production in response to water availability and an AGB1-interacting protein has been linked to Arabidopsis susceptibility to a bacterial pathogen. With the release of the Arabidopsis G-protein interactome, it is greatly anticipated that the role of AGB1 in abiotic stress and biotic stress responses will be determined, since it is largely unknown. The funded project will examine the role of putative AGB1-interacting proteins toward plant fitness in response to drought conditions and in response to bacterial and viral infections. Using various Arabidopsis genetic backgrounds, a functional genetics approach coupled with biochemical and molecular approaches will be used to detect altered hormonal and signaling pathways in response to stress stimuli. The intellectual merit of this proposal consists of the following: (1) deciphering the Arabidopsis AGB1 signaling pathway in response to drought/abiotic stress and pathogen/biotic stress and (2) identifying the functional roles of putative Arabidopsis AGB1-interacting proteins in mediating these responses.

The broader scope of this research includes furthering plant science initiatives to increase the yield of essential plant products for energy applications, agriculture, forestry and other beneficial needs. The funded project will provide numerous research opportunities to increase the number of students including minorities and women from Chowan University and surrounding communities that enter science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) careers including the plant sciences. In addition, the funded project will help strengthen the STEM curriculum at Chowan University and further undergraduate student and local middle school/high school student advancement in interdisciplinary learning. Chowan University is a small primarily undergraduate institution with a growing minority enrollment located in a rural and underdeveloped section of northeastern North Carolina.

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