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Sudhakar L.S.,Choudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya | Bhardwaj R.L.,Choudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya | Pathak V.,Choudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2010

Histological and histochemical studies were conducted in the testis, epididymis and vas deference of Gaddi goats and Gaddi sheep in different seasons (spring, summer, autumn and winter) of the year. In each season, 6 animals of each species were utilized. The studies of these organs in both the species of Gaddi breed were more or less, similar. The capsular thickness, diameter of the seminiferous tubules, density of the Leydig cells, epithelial height of the epididymis and vas deferens were maximum in autumn and minimum in summer. The cytoplasm of the interstitial cells showed strong reaction for the glycogen whose intensity did not vary in the different seasons. The Leydig cells also exhibited reaction for cholesterol whose intensity was maximum in autumn and minimum in summer. The glycogen histochemistry of the epididymis and vas deferens was similar to that observed in the Leydig cells. The cholesterol reaction of the epididymis also resembled that observed in the cytoplasm of the interstitial cells but no seasonal variation was found for this component in the vas deferens (being of moderate reaction in all the seasons).


Bhardwaj J.,Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology | Chauhan R.,Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology | Swarnkar M.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Chahota R.K.,Choudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya | And 3 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2013

Background: Drought tolerance is an attribute maintained in plants by cross-talk between multiple and cascading metabolic pathways. Without a sequenced genome available for horse gram, it is difficult to comprehend such complex networks and intercalated genes associated with drought tolerance of horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum). Therefore, de novo transcriptome discovery and associated analyses was done for this highly drought tolerant yet under exploited legume to decipher its genetic makeup.Results: Eight samples comprising of shoot and root tissues of two horse gram genotypes (drought-sensitive; M-191 and drought-tolerant; M-249) were used for comparison under control and polyethylene glycol-induced drought stress conditions. Using Illumina sequencing technology, a total of 229,297,896 paired end read pairs were generated and utilized for de novo assembly of horse gram. Significant BLAST hits were obtained for 26,045 transcripts while, 3,558 transcripts had no hits but contained important conserved domains. A total of 21,887 unigenes were identified. SSRs containing sequences covered 16.25% of the transcriptome with predominant tri- and mono-nucleotides (43%). The total GC content of the transcriptome was found to be 43.44%. Under Gene Ontology response to stimulus, DNA binding and catalytic activity was highly expressed during drought stress conditions. Serine/threonine protein kinase was found to dominate in Enzyme Classification while pathways belonging to ribosome metabolism followed by plant pathogen interaction and plant hormone signal transduction were predominant in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis. Independent search on plant metabolic network pathways suggested valine degradation, gluconeogenesis and purine nucleotide degradation to be highly influenced under drought stress in horse gram. Transcription factors belonging to NAC, MYB-related, and WRKY families were found highly represented under drought stress. qRT-PCR validated the expression profile for 9 out of 10 genes analyzed in response to drought stress.Conclusions: De novo transcriptome discovery and analysis has generated enormous information over horse gram genomics. The genes and pathways identified suggest efficient regulation leading to active adaptation as a basal defense response against drought stress by horse gram. The knowledge generated can be further utilized for exploring other underexploited plants for stress responsive genes and improving plant tolerance. © 2013 Bhardwaj et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Sharma A.,Choudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya | Sharma K.C.,Choudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya | Singh Y.,Choudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya | Pathania N.K.,Choudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2010

A suitable storage technique for enhancing shelf-life of garlic bulbs can help in reducing oversupply and stabilize prices. This can further provide an opportunity to the growers to sell their produce during lean period which results in high net returns. Therefore, to study the storage life of recommended garlic cultivar 'GHC 1', an experiment consisting of 17 treatment combinations was evaluated at 2 : different locations of Himachal Pradesh, namely Palampur and Kullu. Treatments comprised knotting tops one month prior to harvesting (indigenous practice) and general practice of no knotting of tops, followed by application of iron sulphate and borax @ 500,1 000 and 1 500 ppm and maleic hydrazide @ 2000 ppm (check) each 2 weeks prior to harvesting of bulbs, indigenous practice of hanging bulbs and no chemical spray on both knotting and no knotting plots under ambient temperature storage conditions in a dark room. The indigenous practice of hanging bulbs in storage significantly resulted in minimum loss of weight and incidenceof sprouting, rotting and drying of bulbs compared to all other treatments. On the other hand, application of borax @ 1 000 ppm was effective in reducing physiological loss of weight up to October to the extent of 25% over no chemical application and also recorded low incidence of sprouting, rotting and drying of bulbs. The use of borax could be beneficial for minimizing the storage losses for large-scale storage of garlic bulbs, while indigenous practice could be a suitable preposition for small-scale storage compared to no chemical spray by selling the bulbs during October end.

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