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Singh M.,University of Delhi | Chaudhary N.,University of Delhi | Verma H.S.,Choudhary Charan Singh University
Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology

Densities (ρ/103 kg m3), viscosities (η/0.1 N s m-2) and surface tension (γ/mN m-1) of aqueous 0.005 to 0.02 mol L-1 mannitol, glucose and fructose at an interval of 0.005 mol L-1 and the 0.02, 0.025, and 0.03 v% aqueous geraniol oil were studied. The similar carbohydrates were also studied with 0.025 v% aqueous geraniol. TEM were recorded for sizes of molecules for analysis of probable energy consumption in flow through a capillary of Survismeter, like blood capillaries. The ρ values were used for viscosities (η) and surface tensions (γ). The η were fitted with extended Jones-Dole equation for B/L mol-1 and D/(L mol-1)2 coefficients to explain carbohydrate-geraniol interactions. The B and γ values illustrate structural behavior of carbohydrates irrespective of the compositions. These data analyze hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions of geraniol and carbohydrates where electron micrographs depict shortening of sizes and intermolecular distances with geraniol. The size with and without geraniol remained from 0.019-0.035 nm and 0.016-0.038 nm, respectively. The geraniol increased the densities and decreased the surface tension to almost one half of the binary systems with an effective intermixing. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Rai B.K.,llege har University | Kumar H.,Choudhary Charan Singh University | Sharma M.,Choudhary Charan Singh University
Journal of the Indian Chemical Society

Schiff base complexes of the type [M(MDET)2X2], where M = cobalt(II), nickel(II) and copper(II), MDET = 1-methyl-2,6-diethyl piperidone thioscmicarbazone and X = Cl-, Br-, I -, NO3 - and ClO4 - have been prepared. The ligand and metal complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility, infrared spectra, electronic spectra and molecular conductivity measurements. IR spectral data reveals the compound MDET behaves as neutral bidentate ligand and coordination proposed through azomethine nitrogen and thione sulphur of thiosemicarbazone moiety. The remaining positions of metal ions arc satisfied by negative ions, such as Cl-, Br-, I-, NO3 - and ClO4 -. The electronic spectral data and magnetic susceptibility values proposed octahedral geometry for the complexes. The molar conductivity were recorded in DMF (10-3) solution and found to be in the range of 3.01-4.6 Ω-1 cm2 mol-1, proposed that all the complexes are non electrolytic in nature. Source

Abraham T.,Choudhary Charan Singh University | Abraham T.,Amar Singh College | Sharma U.C.,Choudhary Charan Singh University | Thenua O.V.S.,Choudhary Charan Singh University | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences

A field experiment was conducted during winter (rabi) season of 2005-06 and 2006-07 in the Agronomy Research Farm of Amar Singh College, Lakhaoti, Uttar Pradesh to study the effect of levels of irrigation and fertility on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and mustard (Brassica juncea L. czernj & coss.) in sole and intercropping systems. The experiment was conducted in split-plot design with 3 replications. The combination of treatments consisted of 3 cropping systems, namely sole mustard (C1), sole chickpea (C2) and chickpea + mustard intercropping (C3) (4:1 raw ratio) and 4 irrigation levels [no irrigation (I0), irrigation at pre-flowering (I1), at pod formation (I2), at both pre-flowering and pod formation (I3)] for chickpea allotted to main plots and 3 fertility levels [F1 (20 : 40 : 10 kg N, P2O5 and S/ha)-F2 (40 : 60 : 20 kg N, P2O5 and S/ha) and F3 (recommended dose of fertilisers (RDF)] for both the crops on row length basis to sub-plots. The sole Indian mustard recorded higher seed yield compared to intercropping. The yield reduction in mustard was to the tune of 58.9% and 60.0% in the first and second year, respectively, due to intercropping chickpea. Irrigation, on an average increased the mustard yield by 6.47% (I1), 12.18%(I2) and 13.18%(I3) compared to no irrigation (I0). Similarly fertilizer treatments F2 and F3 on an average increased mustard yield by 10.17% and 18.46%, respectively, over the F1. The intercropping of chickpea and mustard in 4:1 raw ratio was significantly superior to sole crops of either chickpea or mustard in terms of yield and economics. Between the sole crops, chickpea was better as compared to mustard. Application of recommended dose of fertilizers (20 : 60 : 20 kg, N, P2O5 and S/ha) on area basis was superior. Source

Kumar M.,R K College | Gupta M.K.,Choudhary Charan Singh University | Kumari S.,Agra College
Communications in Computer and Information Science

In 2005, Liao et al. pointed out some weaknesses in Das et al.'s dynamic ID-based scheme. They proposed a slight modification to Das et al.'s scheme to improve its weaknesses. In 2008, Gao-Tu, and in 2010, Sood et al., found vulnerabilities in Liao et al.'s scheme; and independently proposed its security enhanced versions. However, we identify that Gao-Tu's scheme is insecure against user impersonation attack, server counterfeit attack, man in the middle attack, server's resource exhaustion attack and does not provide session key agreement. We also demonstrate that Sood et al.'s scheme is still vulnerable to malicious user attack in different ways and user's password is revealed to the server. Besides both the schemes have no provision for revocation of lost or stolen smart card. Our cryptanalysis results are important for security engineers, who are responsible for the design and development of smart card-based user authentication systems. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Tiwari A.K.,Sugarcane Research Station Kunraghat | Snehi S.K.,Plant Molecular Virology Laboratory | Singh R.,Plant Molecular Virology Laboratory | Raj S.K.,Plant Molecular Virology Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection

Begomoviruses cause a number of serious diseases of cultivated crops and are considered as the major constraint for the cultivation of several crops all over the world. During a survey in the years 2007 and 2008, the typical symptoms of Begomovirus (yellow mosaic and yellow vein) were observed on six cucurbitaceous crops, viz. bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.), pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo), pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima), sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica) and ridged gourd (Luffa acutangula) being cultivated in northern India. Begomovirus infection was suspected due to significant infestation of whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci, the known vector of Begomoviruses) on these species. The presence of Begomovirus was detected from the total DNA extracted from six infected leaf samples of these species by polymerase chain reaction using the specific primers of a well-characterised Begomovirus. The ~800 bp amplicons of these isolates were cloned, sequenced and the data obtained were compared with each other and with sequence database available in GenBank for best sequence identities and phylogenetic relationships. Based on highest 97-99% sequence identities and closest phylogenetic relationships, four representative Begomovirus species were identified as Ageratum enation virus (from T. dioica), Squash leaf curl China virus (from C. maxima), Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (from M. charantia, L. cylindrica and L. acutangula) and Tomato leaf curl Palampur virus (from C. pepo). These results suggested the existence of a high genetic diversity among Begomoviruses infecting cucurbitaceous crops. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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