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Gwangju, South Korea

Kang S.-H.,Kyung Hee University | Jeong S.-J.,Kyung Hee University | Jeong S.-J.,Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine | Kim S.-H.,Kyung Hee University | And 6 more authors.

Background: The aim of this study is to determine anti-cancer effect of Icariside II purified from the root of Epimedium koreanum Nakai on human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell line U937. Methodology/Principal Findings: Icariside II blocked the growth U937 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In this anti-proliferation process, this herb compound rendered the cells susceptible to apoptosis, manifested by enhanced accumulation of sub-G1 cell population and increased the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells. Icariside II was able to activate caspase-3 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in a time-dependent manner. Concurrently, the anti-apoptotic proteins, such as bcl-x L and survivin in U937 cells, were downregulated by Icariside II. In addition, Icariside II could inhibit STAT3 phosphorylation and function and subsequently suppress the activation of Janus activated kinase 2 (JAK2), the upstream activators of STAT3, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Icariside II also enhanced the expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) SH2 domain-containing phosphatase (SHP)-1, and the addition of sodium pervanadate (a PTP inhibitor) prevented Icariside II-induced apoptosis as well as STAT3 inactivation in STAT3 positive U937 cells. Furthermore, silencing SHP-1 using its specific siRNA significantly blocked STAT3 inactivation and apoptosis induced by Icariside II in U937 cells. Conclusions/Significance: Our results demonstrated that via targeting STAT3-related signaling, Icariside II sensitizes U937 cells to apoptosis and perhaps serves as a potent chemotherapeutic agent for AML. Source

Min S.,Chosun Nursing College | Jeong J.,Chosun University
Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing

SnO2 thin films were grown on Si substrate using the chemical vapor deposition(CVD) method. The surface of the thin film was examined using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Atypical shaped grains and atypical columnar structures were observed on the SnO2 thin films that were exposed to air after first deposition and during re-deposition in anaerobic conditions in the CVD. The electrical properties of SnO2 thin films feature a lower range of resistance in single mode, but after the atypical particles appear, the electrical resistance decreased. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Choi E.,Chosun Nursing College | Lindquist R.,University of Minnesota | Song Y.,Kyungpook National University
Nurse Education Today

Background: Problem-based learning (PBL) is a method widely used in nursing education to develop students' critical thinking skills to solve practice problems independently. Although PBL has been used in nursing education in Korea for nearly a decade, few studies have examined its effects on Korean nursing students' learning outcomes, and few Korean studies have examined relationships among these outcomes. Objectives: The objectives of this study are to examine outcome abilities including critical thinking, problem-solving, and self-directed learning of nursing students receiving PBL vs. traditional lecture, and to examine correlations among these outcome abilities. Design: A quasi-experimental non-equivalent group pretest-posttest design was used. Participants/Setting: First-year nursing students (N. = 90) were recruited from two different junior colleges in two cities (GY and GJ) in South Korea. Methods: In two selected educational programs, one used traditional lecture methods, while the other used PBL methods. Standardized self-administered questionnaires of critical thinking, problem-solving, and self-directed learning abilities were administered before and at 16. weeks (after instruction). Results: Learning outcomes were significantly positively correlated, however outcomes were not statistically different between groups. Students in the PBL group improved across all abilities measured, while student scores in the traditional lecture group decreased in problem-solving and self-directed learning. Critical thinking was positively associated with problem-solving and self-directed learning (r= .71, and r= .50, respectively, p< .001); problem-solving was positively associated with self-directed learning (r= .75, p< .001). Conclusion: Learning outcomes of PBL were not significantly different from traditional lecture in this small underpowered study, despite positive trends. Larger studies are recommended to study effects of PBL on critical student abilities. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Song J.,Kyung Hee University | Ko H.-S.,Kyung Hee University | Sohn E.J.,Kyung Hee University | Kim B.,Kyung Hee University | And 5 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters

Though glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) from Glycyrrhiza glabra was known to exert antioxidant, antifilarial, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects, the antitumor mechanism of GA was not clearly elucidated in non-small cell lung cancer cells (NSCLCCs). Thus, in the present study, the underlying apoptotic mechanism of GA was examined in NCI-H460 NSCLCCs. GA significantly suppressed the viability of NCI-H460 and A549 non-small lung cancer cells. Also, GA significantly increased the sub G1 population by cell cycle analysis and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) positive cells in a concentration dependent manner in NCI-H460 non-small lung cancer cells. Consistently, GA cleaved poly (ADP-ribosyl) polymerase (PARP), caspase 9/3, attenuated the expression of Bcl-XL, Bcl-2, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin E in NCI-H460 cells. Interestingly, GA attenuated the phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC) α/βII and extracellular activated protein kinase (ERK) as well as activated the phosphorylation of PKC δ and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase in NCI-H460 cells. Conversely, PKC promoter phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and JNK inhibitor SP600125 reversed the cleavages of caspase 3 and PARP induced by GA in NCI-H460 cells. Overall, our findings suggest that GA induces apoptosis via inhibition of PKC α/βII and activation of JNK in NCI-H460 non-small lung cancer cells as a potent anticancer candidate for lung cancer treatment. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Shin D.,Kyung Hee University | Kwon H.-Y.,Kyung Hee University | Sohn E.J.,Kyung Hee University | Nam M.S.,Kyung Hee University | And 5 more authors.
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry

Background/Aims: Although Vitisin A, derived from wine grapes, is known to have cytotoxic, anti-adipogenic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, the underlying antitumor mechanism has not been investigated in prostate cancer cells to date. In the present study, the apoptotic mechanism of Vitisin A plus TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in prostate cancer cells was elucidated. Methods: The cytotoxicity of Vitisin A and/or TRAIL against PC-3, DU145 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells was measured by MTT colorimetric assay. Annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Detection kit was used to detect apoptotic cells by flow cytometry. Intracellular levels of ROS were measured by flow cytometry using 2070-diacetyl dichlorofluorescein (DCFDA). Results: Combined treatment with Vitisin A and TRAIL enhanced cytotoxicity and also increased sub-G1 population in PC-3 cells better than DU145 or LNCap prostate cancer cells. Similarly, Annexin V and PI staining revealed that combination increased early and late apoptosis in PC-3 cells compared to untreated control. Consistently, combination attenuated the expression of pro-caspases 7/8, DcR1, Bcl-XL or Bcl-2 and activated caspase 3, FADD, DR5 and DR4 in PC-3 cells. Also, combination increased DR5 promoter activity compared to untreated control. Furthermore, combination increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DR5 cell surface expression. The ROS inhibitor NAC and silencing of DR5 by siRNA transfection inhibited the ability of combination to induce PARP cleavage and generate ROS. Conclusion: These findings provide evidence that Vitisin A can be used in conjunction with TRAIL as a potent TRAIL sensitizer for synergistic apoptosis induction via upregulation of DR5 and production of ROS in prostate cancer cells. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

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