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Xu P.,Tongji University | Huang J.,CA Technologies | Shen P.,Tongji University | Ma X.,Shenzhen Research Institute of Building Science | And 4 more authors.
Energy Policy | Year: 2013

With China's continuing economic growth, the percentage of government offices and large commercial buildings has increased tremendously; thus, the impact of their energy usage has grown drastically. In this survey, a database with more than 400 buildings was created and analyzed. We researched energy consumption by region, building type, building size and vintage, and we determined the total energy use and performed end use breakdowns of typical buildings in six cities in southern China. The statistical analysis shows that, on average, the annual building electricity use ranged from 50 to 100kWh/m2 for office buildings, 120 to 250kWh/m2 for shopping malls and hotels, and below 40kWh/m2 for education facilities. Building size has no direct correlation with building energy intensity. Although modern commercial buildings built in the 1990s and 2000s did not use more energy on average than buildings built previously, the highest electricity intensive modern buildings used much more energy than those built prior to 1990. Commercial buildings in China used less energy than buildings in equivalent weather locations in the US and about the same amount of energy as buildings in India. However, commercial buildings in China provide comparatively less thermal comfort than buildings in comparable US climates. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Fan Y.-R.,Chongqing University | Deng C.,Chongqing University | Luo H.,Chongqing Research Institute of Building Science | Chen W.,Chongqing University | Qian J.-S.,Chongqing University
Tumu Jianzhu yu Huanjing Gongcheng/Journal of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering | Year: 2012

The effects of sewage sludge dosage and firing temperature on the performance of fired shale sample were investigated experimentally. The volatilization of heavy metals in the firing process and the heavy metals solidification of fired sample, were studied by means of selecting three representative heavy metals and using excess heavy metals mixed with sludge and shale. The results show that when the sewage sludge dosage is 30% and the firing temperature is at 900°C, the compressive strength of fired shale sample could reach more than 10 MPa. The addition of sewage sludge is beneficial to improve the plasticity of brick mixture and significantly reduce the bulk density of fired shale sample, whilst it can also increase the drying and firing shrinkage. The dosage of sludge should be controlled within 30%, and firing temperature should be controlled between 900~1000°C. Addition of sewage sludge will make fired shale sample efflorescent, and the more dosage of sewage sludge, the more serious efflorescence. Increasing the firing temperature can be suppressed the efflorescence to some extent. In the firing process of fired sample with sewage sludge and shale, the volatilization of heavy metals is far less than the sintering process of pure sludge incineration. The leaching concentrations of total copper, total chromium and total lead which come from fired sample made of shale and sludge are all within safety standards of the leaching toxicity.


Sebastian W.,University of Bristol | Zhang C.,Chongqing Research Institute of Building science
Composites Part B: Engineering | Year: 2013

This paper discusses the fabrication of, failure testing of and test data analysis from multiple two-span continuous FRP-plated steel I-beams. The study incorporated variation between beams of the layout and amount of FRP plating along the positive and negative moment zones, the novel concept of bonding (rather than welding) the steel plate stiffeners to the beams' webs and flanges, use of longitudinal strain gauges on the bonded and exposed surfaces of key FRP plates, and elastomeric (hence flexible) pads to distribute stresses into the webs at the supports. The bonded steel stiffeners significantly delayed local buckling of the beams. Use of strains from only the exposed surface of any FRP plate produces erroneous magnitude changes and sign reversal of the high interfacial shear stresses near plate curtailment, relative to the prudent approach of using strain averages from the plate's bonded and exposed surfaces. Differences between bonded and exposed surface strains enabled quantification of interfacial normal stresses. Relaxation of the rigid support assumption in favour of experimentally determined flexible support stiffnesses significantly nudges the predicted moment distributions toward the test distributions. This enables reliable assessment of the potential for end-peel failure arising from offsets between plate curtailment and contraflexure. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Li Z.K.,Chongqing University | Li Z.K.,Chongqing Research Institute of Building Science | Peng J.H.,Chongqing University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2013

In this paper, the adsorption behavior of polycarboxylate superplasticizer (PC) on cement was examined. Through adsorption of PC, adsorption area of the molecule was calculated, and it is found that PC molecule would maintain curled shape when it was adsorbed on the surface of cement particles. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Li Z.K.,Chongqing University | Li Z.K.,Chongqing Research Institute of Building Science | Peng J.H.,Chongqing University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2013

In this paper, polycarboxylate superplasticizer (PC) was separated by ultrafiltration to investigate function on dispersion of various portions of PC. It is found there is a grading effect on the dispersion and adsorption of polycarboxylate superplasticizer, through fluidity and adsorption experiments. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Zhang X.,Chongqing Jiaotong University | Zhang C.,Chongqing Research Institute of Building science
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012

This paper presents a novel FRP-ERBG-asphalt concrete pavement system for steel bridge decks. Based on the preliminary results of theoretical analyses and laboratory tests, this new system offers superior structural performance to conventional asphalt concrete pavement systems. Once trial tested in practice, it may well represent a new generation of reliable and economic pavement system for steel bridge decks.


Li Z.K.,Chongqing University | Li Z.K.,Chongqing Research Institute of Building Science | Peng J.H.,Chongqing Research Institute of Building Science
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

This paper studied the effect of polycarboxylate superplasticizer on cement hydration products through XRD, DTA/TG, ESEM, IR, XPS and adsorption test, and suggested that the new hydration products were not discovered in the adding PC sample; the adding of PC delayed the formation of hydration product of Aft; with the hydration, the PC molecules were wrapped by hydration products. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Luo H.,Chongqing University | Luo H.,Chongqing Research Institute of Building Science | Qian J.,Chongqing University | Chen W.,Chongqing University | And 2 more authors.
Kuei Suan Jen Hsueh Pao/Journal of the Chinese Ceramic Society | Year: 2010

Sewage sludge with high water contents from the sewage treatment plant was mixed with shale to calcine an expanded shale. The calcining ex-pansion process of the expanded shale was analyzed by thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The effects of the sewage sludge content and calcining expansion temperature on the apparent particle density and strength were investigated. The expanding mechanism of the expanded shale contained sewage sludge was also discussed. The results show that the lightweight expanded shale can be obtained at the sewage sludge contents of 20%-30% and the calcining expansion temperature of 1150°C. The addition of sewage sludge could lead to a higher ignition loss of raw materials, and lower the melting temperature, resulting in the stronger reduction atmosphere during calcining process. Therefore, the polymerization degree of reticular Si-O tetrahedron can be reduced largely and the minerals like fayalite are formed, which promotes the melting degree and the calcining expansion of expanded shale.


Chao Z.,Chongqing Research Institute of Building science | Wenxiu L.,Chongqing Research Institute of Building science | Muhammad A.,1st Floor St Johns House | Lee C.,1st Floor St Johns House
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012

Within the UK bridge engineering sector, fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) decks have been increasingly used in deck replacement applications. However, study on its environmental performance is limited. This paper examines the environmental credentials of this relatively new decking system by way of a case study comparing its life cycle environmental performance - in carbon terms - with that of conventional concrete decks. In order for the findings to be more general and informative, the bridge is assumed to carry an 'average' volume of traffic across the highway network where it is most likely to be present. Based on the results, areas for improvement are identified in order for this decking system to be more environmentally competitive. Uncertainties and limitations of the results are also discussed.

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