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Xu P.,Tongji University | Huang J.,CA Technologies | Shen P.,Tongji University | Ma X.,Shenzhen Research Institute of Building Science | And 4 more authors.
Energy Policy | Year: 2013

With China's continuing economic growth, the percentage of government offices and large commercial buildings has increased tremendously; thus, the impact of their energy usage has grown drastically. In this survey, a database with more than 400 buildings was created and analyzed. We researched energy consumption by region, building type, building size and vintage, and we determined the total energy use and performed end use breakdowns of typical buildings in six cities in southern China. The statistical analysis shows that, on average, the annual building electricity use ranged from 50 to 100kWh/m2 for office buildings, 120 to 250kWh/m2 for shopping malls and hotels, and below 40kWh/m2 for education facilities. Building size has no direct correlation with building energy intensity. Although modern commercial buildings built in the 1990s and 2000s did not use more energy on average than buildings built previously, the highest electricity intensive modern buildings used much more energy than those built prior to 1990. Commercial buildings in China used less energy than buildings in equivalent weather locations in the US and about the same amount of energy as buildings in India. However, commercial buildings in China provide comparatively less thermal comfort than buildings in comparable US climates. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Fan Y.-R.,Chongqing University | Deng C.,Chongqing University | Luo H.,Chongqing Research Institute of Building science | Chen W.,Chongqing University | Qian J.-S.,Chongqing University
Tumu Jianzhu yu Huanjing Gongcheng/Journal of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering | Year: 2012

The effects of sewage sludge dosage and firing temperature on the performance of fired shale sample were investigated experimentally. The volatilization of heavy metals in the firing process and the heavy metals solidification of fired sample, were studied by means of selecting three representative heavy metals and using excess heavy metals mixed with sludge and shale. The results show that when the sewage sludge dosage is 30% and the firing temperature is at 900°C, the compressive strength of fired shale sample could reach more than 10 MPa. The addition of sewage sludge is beneficial to improve the plasticity of brick mixture and significantly reduce the bulk density of fired shale sample, whilst it can also increase the drying and firing shrinkage. The dosage of sludge should be controlled within 30%, and firing temperature should be controlled between 900~1000°C. Addition of sewage sludge will make fired shale sample efflorescent, and the more dosage of sewage sludge, the more serious efflorescence. Increasing the firing temperature can be suppressed the efflorescence to some extent. In the firing process of fired sample with sewage sludge and shale, the volatilization of heavy metals is far less than the sintering process of pure sludge incineration. The leaching concentrations of total copper, total chromium and total lead which come from fired sample made of shale and sludge are all within safety standards of the leaching toxicity.


Li Z.K.,Chongqing University | Li Z.K.,Chongqing Research Institute of Building science | Peng J.H.,Chongqing University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2013

In this paper, polycarboxylate superplasticizer (PC) was separated by ultrafiltration to investigate function on dispersion of various portions of PC. It is found there is a grading effect on the dispersion and adsorption of polycarboxylate superplasticizer, through fluidity and adsorption experiments. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Li Z.K.,Chongqing University | Li Z.K.,Chongqing Research Institute of Building science | Peng J.H.,Chongqing University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2013

In this paper, the adsorption behavior of polycarboxylate superplasticizer (PC) on cement was examined. Through adsorption of PC, adsorption area of the molecule was calculated, and it is found that PC molecule would maintain curled shape when it was adsorbed on the surface of cement particles. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Zhang X.,Chongqing Jiaotong University | Zhang C.,Chongqing Research Institute of Building science
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012

This paper presents a novel FRP-ERBG-asphalt concrete pavement system for steel bridge decks. Based on the preliminary results of theoretical analyses and laboratory tests, this new system offers superior structural performance to conventional asphalt concrete pavement systems. Once trial tested in practice, it may well represent a new generation of reliable and economic pavement system for steel bridge decks.

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