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Bu X.-L.,Chongqing Medical University | Yao X.-Q.,Chongqing Medical University | Jiao S.-S.,Chongqing Medical University | Zeng F.,Chongqing Medical University | And 19 more authors.
European Journal of Neurology

Background and purpose: Previous studies suggested that the overall burden of prior infections contributes to cardiovascular diseases and stroke. In the present study, the association between infectious burden (IB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) was examined. Methods: Antibody titers to common infectious pathogens including cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), Borrelia burgdorferi, Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 128 AD patients and 135 healthy controls. IB was defined as a composite serological measure of exposure to these common pathogens. Results: Seropositivities toward zero-two, three and four-five of these pathogens were found in 44%, 40% and 16% of healthy controls but in 20%, 44% and 36% of AD patients, respectively. IB, bacterial burden and viral burden were independently associated with AD after adjusting for age, gender, education, APOE genotype and various comorbidities. Mini-Mental State Examination scores were negatively correlated with IB in all cases. Serum beta-amyloid protein (Aβ) levels (i.e. Aβ40, Aβ42 and total Aβ) and inflammatory cytokines (i.e. interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6) in individuals exposed to four-five infectious pathogens were significantly higher than those exposed to zero-two or three pathogens. Conclusions: IB consisting of CMV, HSV-1, B. burgdorferi, C. pneumoniae and H. pylori is associated with AD. This study supports the role of infection/inflammation in the etiopathogenesis of AD. © 2015 European Academy of Neurology. Source

Hou J.-M.,Chongqing Medical University | Li H.-T.,Chongqing Medical University | Wu W.-J.,Chongqing Medical University | Qu W.,Chongqing Medical University | And 2 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Medical Imaging Technology

Objective: To investigate brain regions of dysfunction in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) patients with fMRI. Methods: Thirteen OCD patients and 15 healthy controls matched at age, gender and education level underwent fMRI when performing a Chinese Stroop test. The imaging data were analyzed and compared with SPM8 software to acquire the activation regions. Results: OCD patients needed to activate more brain areas than normal subjects, such as left parahippocampal gyrus, paracentral lobule, thalamus, calcarine cortex, etc. to complete the simple word reading Stroop tests. Decreased activation was demonstrated in left anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nucleus in OCD patients. During the color naming Stroop tests, there were scarcely any regions that OCD patients showed stronger activation than healthy controls, while they showed decreased activation in the orbital frontal cortex, left anterior cingulate cortex and caudate. Conclusion: OCD patients may have brain dysfunction in orbital frontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and caudate, and this might play a critical role in the pathogenesis of OCD. Source

Bi B.,Nanjing Medical University | Xiao X.,Nanjing Medical University | Zhang H.,Nanjing Medical University | Gao J.,Zhe Jiang Traditional Chinese Medical Hospital | And 43 more authors.
Psychological Medicine

Background The relationship between recurrent major depression (MD) in women and suicidality is complex. We investigated the extent to which patients who suffered with various forms of suicidal symptomatology can be distinguished from those subjects without such symptoms. Method We examined the clinical features of the worst episode in 1970 Han Chinese women with recurrent DSM-IV MD between the ages of 30 and 60 years from across China. Student's t tests, and logistic and multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the association between suicidality and other clinical features of MD. Results Suicidal symptomatology is significantly associated with a more severe form of MD, as indexed by both the number of episodes and number of MD symptoms. Patients reporting suicidal thoughts, plans or attempts experienced a significantly greater number of stressful life events. The depressive symptom most strongly associated with lifetime suicide attempt was feelings of worthlessness (odds ratio 4.25, 95% confidence interval 2.9-6.3). Excessive guilt, diminished concentration and impaired decision-making were also significantly associated with a suicide attempt. Conclusions This study contributes to the existing literature on risk factors for suicidal symptomatology in depressed women. Identifying specific depressive symptoms and co-morbid psychiatric disorders may help improve the clinical assessment of suicide risk in depressed patients. These findings could be helpful in identifying those who need more intense treatment strategies in order to prevent suicide. © 2012 Cambridge University Press. Source

Cai N.,University of Oxford | Chang S.,Chang Gung University | Li Y.,University of Oxford | Li Q.,BGI Shenzhen | And 70 more authors.
Current Biology

Adversity, particularly in early life, can cause illness. Clues to the responsible mechanisms may lie with the discovery of molecular signatures of stress, some of which include alterations to an individual's somatic genome. Here, using genome sequences from 11,670 women, we observed a highly significant association between a stress-related disease, major depression, and the amount of mtDNA (p = 9.00 × 10-42, odds ratio 1.33 [95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.29-1.37]) and telomere length (p = 2.84 × 10-14, odds ratio 0.85 [95% CI = 0.81-0.89]). While both telomere length and mtDNA amount were associated with adverse life events, conditional regression analyses showed the molecular changes were contingent on the depressed state. We tested this hypothesis with experiments in mice, demonstrating that stress causes both molecular changes, which are partly reversible and can be elicited by the administration of corticosterone. Together, these results demonstrate that changes in the amount of mtDNA and telomere length are consequences of stress and entering a depressed state. These findings identify increased amounts of mtDNA as a molecular marker of MD and have important implications for understanding how stress causes the disease. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved. Source

Fang M.,Central South University | Fang M.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Chen H.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Li L.-H.,Central South University | And 13 more authors.
International Clinical Psychopharmacology

This randomized, parallel-group, open study investigated the efficacy and safety of risperidone oral solution (RIS-OS) in combination with clonazepam and intramuscular haloperidol for the treatment of acute agitation in patients with schizophrenia, and the study explored the possibility of decreasing the efficacy of an acute 6-week treatment by switching intramuscular haloperidol injection to RIS-OS. Two hundred and five agitation-exhibiting schizophrenic inpatients at six hospitals were originally included in the study. The 47-day trial consisted of 5 days (session I) of receiving either oral treatment (RIS-OS plus clonazepam) or intramuscular treatment (intramuscular haloperidol) and a 42-day (session II) period of either withdrawing from clonazepam or shifting from intramuscular haloperidol to a RIS-OS period. The primary efficacy outcome was measured as the change in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Excited Component (PANSS-EC) in session I and the change in the PANSS in session II. Safety was assessed by the frequency of the adverse events. Mean PANSS-EC improvement was significant after 5 days of treatment in both groups (P>0.05) and was similar between the two treatment groups (P<0.01). Most patients' PANSS-EC scores improved or remained stable during the drawback/shift treatment period. Efficacy was not significantly different between the two treatment groups after the 6-week treatment (P>0.05). However, combination treatment exhibited greater efficacy, and adverse events, especially extrapyramidal symptoms, were lower with the oral treatment than with the intramuscular treatment in session I. These results show that RIS-OS in combination with clonazepam is an effective treatment, comparable with intramuscular haloperidol, and is well-tolerated for acute agitation in patients with schizophrenia. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

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