Yuzhong Chengguanzhen, China
Yuzhong Chengguanzhen, China

Chongqing Medical University , previously referred to as the Chongqing University of Medical science , was established in 1956 in Chongqing, China. It was originally a branch of the Shanghai First Medical College . Wikipedia.

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Luo Z.,Chongqing Medical University | Zhang S.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012

Chirality is absolutely central in chemistry and biology. The recent findings of chiral self-assembling peptides' remarkable chemical complementarity and structural compatibility make it one of the most inspired designer materials and structures in nanobiotechnology. The emerging field of designer chemistry and biology further explores biological and medical applications of these simple d,l- amino acids through producing marvellous nanostructures under physiological conditions. These self-assembled structures include well-ordered nanofibers, nanotubes and nanovesicles. These structures have been used for 3-dimensional tissue cultures of primary cells and stem cells, sustained release of small molecules, growth factors and monoclonal antibodies, accelerated wound-healing in reparative and regenerative medicine as well as tissue engineering. Recent advances in molecular designs have also led to the development of 3D fine-tuned bioactive tissue culture scaffolds. They are also used to stabilize membrane proteins including difficult G-protein coupled receptors for designing nanobiodevices. One of the self-assembling peptides has been used in human clinical trials for accelerated wound-healings. It is our hope that these peptide materials will open doors for more and diverse clinical uses. The field of chiral self-assembling peptide nanobiotechnology is growing in a number of directions that has led to many surprises in areas of novel materials, synthetic biology, clinical medicine and beyond. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Bian S.Z.,Chongqing Medical University
The journal of headache and pain | Year: 2013

This prospective and observational study aimed to identify demographic, physiological and psychological risk factors associated with high-altitude headache (HAH) upon acute high-altitude exposure. Eight hundred fifty subjects ascended by plane to 3700 m above Chengdu (500 m) over a period of two hours. Structured Case Report Form (CRF) questionnaires were used to record demographic information, physiological examinations, psychological scale, and symptoms including headache and insomnia a week before ascending and within 24 hours after arrival at 3700 m. Binary logistic regression models were used to analyze the risk factors for HAH. The incidence of HAH was 73.3%. Age (p =0.011), physical labor intensity (PLI) (p =0.044), primary headache history (p <0.001), insomnia (p <0.001), arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) (p =0.001), heart rate (HR) (p =0.002), the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) (p <0.001), and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) (p <0.001) were significantly different between HAH and non-HAH groups. Logistic regression models identified primary headache history, insomnia, low SaO2, high HR and SAS as independent risk factors for HAH. Insomnia, primary headache history, low SaO2, high HR, and high SAS score are the risk factors for HAH. Our findings will provide novel avenues for the study, prevention and treatment of HAH.

Xu H.,Chongqing Medical University
Molecular neurobiology | Year: 2013

Granule cell migration influences the laminar structure of the cerebellum and thereby affects cerebellum function. Bergmann glia are derived from radial glial cells and aid in granule cell radial migration by providing a scaffold for migration and by mediating interactions between Bergmann glia and granule cells. In this review, we summarize Bergmann glia characteristics and the mechanisms underlying the effect of Bergmann glia on the radial migration of granule neurons in the cerebellum. Furthermore, we will focus our discussion on the important factors involved in glia-mediated radial migration so that we may elucidate the possible mechanistic pathways used by Bergmann glia to influence granule cell migration during cerebellum development.

To identify new genetic risk factors for Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) syndrome, we conducted a genome-wide association study of 2,208,258 SNPs in 774 cases and 2,009 controls with follow-up in a collection of 415 cases and 2,006 controls and a further collection of 349 cases and 1,588 controls from a Han Chinese population. We identified three loci associated with VKH syndrome susceptibility (IL23R-C1orf141, rs117633859, Pcombined = 3.42 × 10-21, odds ratio (OR) = 1.82; ADO-ZNF365-EGR2, rs442309, Pcombined = 2.97 × 10-11, OR = 1.37; and HLA-DRB1/DQA1, rs3021304, Pcombined = 1.26 × 10-118, OR = 2.97). The five non-HLA genes were all expressed in human iris tissue. IL23R was also expressed in the ciliary body, and EGR2 was expressed in the ciliary body and choroid. The risk G allele of rs117633859 in the promoter region of IL23R exhibited low transcriptional activation in a cell-based reporter assay and was associated with diminished IL23R mRNA expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

The process of peritoneal metastasis involves the diapedesis of intra-abdominal exfoliated gastric cancer cells through the mesothelial cell monolayers; however, the related molecular mechanisms for this process are still unclear. Heterocellular gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) between gastric cancer cells and mesothelial cells may play an active role during diapedesis. In this study we detected the expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) in primary gastric cancer tissues, intra-abdominal exfoliated cancer cells, and matched metastatic peritoneal tissues. We found that the expression of Cx43 in primary gastric cancer tissues was significantly decreased; the intra-abdominal exfoliated cancer cells and matched metastatic peritoneal tissues exhibited increasing expression compared with primary gastric cancer tissues. BGC-823 and SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells were engineered to express Cx43 or Cx43T154A (a mutant protein that only couples gap junctions but provides no intercellular communication) and were co-cultured with human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs). Heterocellular GJIC and diapedesis through HPMC monolayers on matrigel-coated coverslips were investigated. We found that BGC-823 and SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells expressing Cx43 formed functional heterocellular gap junctions with HPMC monolayers within one hour. A significant increase in diapedesis was observed in engineered Cx43-expressing cells compared with Cx43T154A and control group cells, which suggested that the observed upregulation of diapedesis in Cx43-expressing cells required heterocellular GJIC. Further study revealed that the gastric cancer cells transmigrated through the intercellular space between the mesothelial cells via a paracellular route. Our results suggest that the abnormal expression of Cx43 plays an essential role in peritoneal metastasis and that Cx43-mediated heterocellular GJIC between gastric cancer cells and mesothelial cells may be an important regulatory step during metastasis. Finally, we observed that the diapedesis of exfoliated gastric cancer cells through mesothelial barriers is a viable route of paracellular migration.

Highly charged hydrophilic superparamagnetic Fe3O4 colloidal nanocrystal clusters with an average diameter of 195 nm have been successfully synthesized using a modified one-step solvothermal method. Anionic polyelectrolyte poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid-co-maleic acid) sodium salt containing both sulfonate and carboxylate groups was used as the stabilizer. The clusters synthesized under different experimental conditions were characterized with transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering; it was found that the size distribution and water dispersity were significantly affected by the concentration of the polyelectrolyte stabilizer and iron sources in the reaction mixtures. A possible mechanism involving novel gel-like large molecular networks that confined the nucleation and aggregation process was proposed and discussed. The colloidal nanocrystal clusters remained negatively charged in the experimental pH ranges from 2 to 11, and also showed high colloidal stability in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and ethanol. These highly colloidal stable superparamagnetic Fe3O4 clusters could find potential applications in bioseparation, targeted drug delivery, and photonics.

Fang J.,Chongqing Medical University
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science | Year: 2013

TLR2, TLR4, TLR8, and TLR9 have been reported to be associated with several autoimmune diseases. The current study aimed to explore whether singe nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of these four genes were associated with ocular Behçet's disease (BD), Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) syndrome, acute anterior uveitis (AAU) with or without ankylosing spondylitis (AS), or pediatric uveitis in Han Chinese. Genotyping was performed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The first stage study comprised 400 ocular BD patients, 400 VKH syndrome patients, 400 AAU ± AS patients, 400 pediatric uveitis patients and 600 healthy subjects. The second stage included 438 ocular BD patients and 1000 healthy subjects. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared between patients and controls using the χ(2) test. Real-time PCR was used to detect mRNA expression from PBMCs obtained from healthy controls. Levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-1beta in culture supernatants were measured by ELISA. In the first stage study, only the frequencies of the rs2289318/TLR2 genotype A and C allele and rs3804099/TLR2 genotype CT were significantly higher in ocular BD patients (Pc = 0.048; Pc = 0.008; Pc = 0.005, respectively) compared with controls. The second stage and combined studies confirmed the association (Pc = 0.001; Pc = 6.89E-06, Pc = 2.426E-06, respectively). TLR2 mRNA expression in PBMCs was increased in healthy carriers of the CC genotype of rs2289318/TLR2 and TT genotype of rs3804099/TLR2 following stimulation with peptidoglycan (PGN; P = 0.028; P = 0.004, respectively). No effect of the various TLR2 rs2289318 and rs3804099 genotypes on the release of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-1beta could be detected. This study provides evidence that the TLR2 gene is involved in the susceptibility to ocular BD.

Zhu Q.,Chongqing Medical University
Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN | Year: 2012

DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification of DNA that is catalyzed by DNA methyltransferase (DNMT). Increasing evidence suggests that DNA methylation in neurons regulates synaptic plasticity as well as neuronal network activity. Here, we evaluated DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) and Dnmt3a expression in brain tissues of epileptic patients to explore their possible role in epileptogenesis. Tissue samples from temporal neocortices of 25 patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and ten histologically normal temporal lobes from control patients were used to detect Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a expression through immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western blotting analysis. We found that both Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a expression were principally expressed in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of NeuN-positive neurons, but not in GFAP-positive astrocytes. Levels of the two DNMT proteins were significantly increased in patients with TLE. Our study suggests that DNMT1 and DNMT3a may play a role in the pathogenesis of TLE.

Recent studies on the association between CD14-159C/T polymorphism and sepsis showed inconclusive results. Accordingly, we conducted a comprehensive literature search and a meta-analysis to determine whether the CD14-159C/T polymorphism conferred susceptibility to sepsis or was associated with increased risk of death from sepsis. Data were collected from the following electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, Medline, Web of Knowledge, and HuGE Navigator, with the last report up to June 15, 2012. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the strength of association. We summarized the data on the association between CD14-159C/T polymorphism and sepsis in the overall population and subgroup by ethnicity and sepsis subtype. A total of 16 studies on sepsis morbidity (1369 cases and 2382 controls) and 4 studies on sepsis mortality (731 sepsis patients) met the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Overall analysis showed no strong evidences of association with sepsis susceptibility under any genetic model. However, slight associations were found in Asian populations (dominant model: OR = 1.38, 95%CI = 0.96-1.98, P = 0.08) and septic shock patients (dominant model: OR = 1.72, 95%CI 1.05-2.83, P = 0.03; allelic model: OR = 1.52, 95%CI 1.09-2.12, P = 0.01) in the stratified analysis. Moreover, there was borderline association between CD14-159C/T and sepsis mortality under the dominant genetic model (OR = 1.44, 95%CI = 0.98-2.11, P = 0.06). This meta-analysis suggests that the CD14-159C/T polymorphism may not be a significant susceptibility factor in the risk of sepsis and mortality. Only weak associations were observed in Asian populations and septic shock patients. More studies based on larger sample sizes and homogeneous sepsis patients are needed to confirm these findings.

Insulin resistance (IR) is considered to be one of the most important pathogenesis of glycolipid metabolism disorders. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for IR is not fully understood. Recently, the chronic inflammation has been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of IR. In this study, we aim to investigate the concentrations of plasma progranulin in Chinese patients with obesity (OB) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and its relationship to IR. Plasma progranulin concentrations were significantly higher in the T2DM patients than in the normal glucose tolerant (NGT) subjects (P < 0.01). Within the T2DM and the NGT patients, the concentrations of progranulin were significantly higher in obese subjects than that in the normal weight subjects (225.22 ± 34.39 ng/mL versus 195.59 ± 50.47 ng/mL and 183.79 ± 61.63 ng/mL versus 148.69 ± 55.27 ng/mL, P < 0.05). Plasma progranulin concentrations correlated positively with weight, waist circumferences, BMI, HbA1c, TG, IL-6, FINS and HOMA-IR (P < 0.05), while correlated negatively with HOMA- β (P < 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that BMI, HbA1c, IL-6 and TG correlated independently with circulating progranulin concentrations (P < 0.05). These results suggested that Plasma progranulin concentrations were higher in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity and correlated closely with glycolipid metabolism, chronic inflammation and IR.

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