Zhang C.,Chongqing Academy of Environmental science |
Zhang C.,Chongqing Key Laboratory of Urban Atmospheric Environment for Integrated Observation and Pollution P |
Zhou Z.-E.,Chongqing Academy of Environmental science |
Zhou Z.-E.,Chongqing Key Laboratory of Urban Atmospheric Environment for Integrated Observation and Pollution P |
And 9 more authors.
Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science | Year: 2014
PM2.5 was sampled from commercial, industrial and residential areas in Chongqing urban city from 2nd May to 10th May 2012 in order to find out characteristics and sources of carbon in PM2.5. Eight kinds of carbons were analyzed by the TOR method. Characteristics of carbon pollution in PM2.5 from three kinds of functional areas and six kinds of sources, including coal-combustion, exhausts (vehicle, boat and construction machine), biomass burning, cooking smoke, were analyzed. Based on carbon source profiles, local indicating components of carbon sources in PM2.5 were obtained used the chemical mass balance (CMB) model. Contribution rate of different sources to PM2.5 carbon were parsed out by factor analysis. The results showed the OC/EC of coal-combustion, vehicle exhausts, boat exhausts, construction machine exhausts, biomass burning and cooking smoke were 6.3, 3.0, 1.9, 1.4, 12.7 and 31.3, respectively. High loads of EC2 and EC3 indicated diesel vehicle exhaust emissions, high loads of OC2, OC3, OC4 and OPC indicated coal-combustion emissions, OC1, OC2, OC3, OC4 and EC1 indicated gasoline vehicle exhaust emissions, OC3 indicated cooking emissions, and OPC indicated biomass burning emissions. OC/PM2.5, EC/PM2.5, secondary organic carbon (SOC) /OC in the commercial area were 17.4%, 6.9% and 40.0%, respectively. OC/PM2.5, EC/PM2.5 and SOC/OC in the industrial area were 15.5%, 6.6% and 37.4%, respectively. OC/PM2.5, EC/PM2.5 and SOC/OC in the residential area were 14.6% 5.6% and 42.8%, respectively. In the industrial area, the main sources of carbon in PM2.5 were coal combustion, gasoline vehicle exhausts and diesel exhaust. In the commercial area, the main sources of carbon were gasoline vehicle exhausts, diesel exhausts and cooking. In the residential area, the main sources of carbon were gasoline vehicle exhausts, cooking smoke and diesel exhausts.