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Xu X.,Chongqing Medical University | Wang P.,Chongqing Medical University | Zhao Z.,Chongqing Medical University | Cao T.,Chongqing Medical University | And 11 more authors.
Stroke | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE-: Previous studies show that endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays a prominent role in maintaining cerebral blood flow and preventing stroke. Capsaicin in hot pepper can increase the phosphorylation of eNOS in endothelial cells. We test the hypothesis that chronic dietary capsaicin can prevent stroke through activation of cerebrovascular transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRsp). METHODS-: SHRsp were fed dietary capsaicin, and their onset of stroke was examined. TRPV1 knockout and transgenic mice were used for determining the function of TRPV1 channels. Expression of eNOS and cerebrovascular reactivity were examined. RESULTS-: Immunofluorescence showed TRPV1 channels and eNOS coexpression in cerebral arterioles. Administration of capsaicin significantly increased phosphorylated eNOS in carotid arteries from wild-type mice but not in TRPV1 knockout mice. Inhibition of eNOS using N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, removal of endothelium, or mutant TRPV1 significantly reduced capsaicin-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation of basilar arteries in mice. Chronic dietary capsaicin also remarkably increased eNOS expression in carotid arteries from SHRsp. Compared with Wistar-Kyoto rats, SHRsp had impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation of basilar arteries. Administration of capsaicin or L-arginine significantly improved the endothelium-dependent relaxation of basilar arteries in SHRsp. SHRsp had hypertrophy of cerebral arterioles, which was reversed by dietary capsaicin. Importantly, long-term administration of capsaicin significantly delayed the onset of stroke and increased the survival time in SHRsp. CONCLUSIONS-: Activation of TRPV1 channels by dietary capsaicin mediated increases in phosphorylation of eNOS and could represent a novel target for dietary intervention of stroke. © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.

Li L.,Chongqing Institute of Hypertension | Wang F.,Chongqing Institute of Hypertension | Wei X.,Chongqing Institute of Hypertension | Liang Y.,Chongqing Institute of Hypertension | And 11 more authors.
Hypertension | Year: 2014

High salt (HS) intake contributes to the development of hypertension. Epithelial sodium channels play crucial roles in regulating renal sodium reabsorption and blood pressure. The renal transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) cation channel can be activated by its agonist capsaicin. However, it is unknown whether dietary factors can act on urinary sodium excretion and renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) function. Here, we report that TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin increased urinary sodium excretion through reducing sodium reabsorption in wild-type (WT) mice on a HS diet but not in TRPV1 mice. The effect of capsaicin on urinary sodium excretion was involved in inhibiting αENaC and its related with-no-lysine kinase 1/serum-and glucocorticoid-inducible protein kinase 1 pathway in renal cortical collecting ducts of WT mice. Dietary capsaicin further reduced the increased αENaC activity in WT mice attributed to the HS diet. In contrast, this capsaicin effect was absent in TRPV1 mice. Immunoprecipitation study indicated αENaC specifically coexpressed and functionally interact with TRPV1 in renal cortical collecting ducts of WT mice. Additionally, ENaC activity and expression were suppressed by capsaicin-mediated TRPV1 activation in cultured M1-cortical collecting duct cells. Long-term dietary capsaicin prevented the development of high blood pressure in WT mice on a HS diet. It concludes that TRPV1 activation in the cortical collecting ducts by capsaicin increases urinary sodium excretion and avoids HS diet-induced hypertension through antagonizing αENaC-mediated urinary sodium reabsorption. Dietary capsaicin may represent a promising lifestyle intervention in populations exposed to a high dietary salt intake. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

Xiong S.,Chongqing Institute of Hypertension | Wang P.,Chongqing Institute of Hypertension | Ma L.,Chongqing Institute of Hypertension | Gao P.,Chongqing Institute of Hypertension | And 10 more authors.
Hypertension | Year: 2016

Coronary heart disease arising from atherosclerosis is a leading cause of cardiogenic death worldwide. Mitochondria are the principal source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and defective oxidative phosphorylation by the mitochondrial respiratory chain contributes to ROS generation. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), an adaptive antioxidant defense factor, protects against mitochondrial ROS-induced endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis. The activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) attenuates vascular dysfunction. Therefore, whether TRPV1 activation antagonizes coronary lesions by alleviating endothelial mitochondrial dysfunction and enhancing the activity of the protein kinase A/UCP2 pathway warrants examination. ApoE-/-, ApoE-/-/TRPV1-/-, and ApoE-/-/UCP2-/- mice were fed standard chow, a high-fat diet (HFD), or the HFD plus 0.01% capsaicin. HFD intake profoundly impaired coronary vasodilatation and myocardial perfusion and shortened the survival duration of ApoE-/- mice. TRPV1 or UCP2 deficiency exacerbated HFD-induced coronary dysfunction and was associated with increased ROS generation and reduced nitric oxide production in the endothelium. The activation of TRPV1 by capsaicin upregulated UCP2 expression via protein kinase A phosphorylation, thereby alleviating endothelial mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibiting mitochondrial ROS generation. In vivo, dietary capsaicin supplementation enhanced coronary relaxation and prolonged the survival duration of HFD-fed ApoE-/- mice. These effects were not observed in ApoE-/- mice lacking the TRPV1 or UCP2 gene. The upregulation of protein kinase A/UCP2 via TRPV1 activation ameliorates coronary dysfunction and prolongs the lifespan of atherosclerotic mice by ameliorating endothelial mitochondrial dysfunction. Dietary capsaicin supplementation may represent a promising intervention for the primary prevention of coronary heart disease. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

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