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Wan D.,Chongqing Medical University | Xue L.,Chongqing Chemical Industry Vocational College | Zhu H.,Southwest University | Zhu H.,Chongqing Engineering Research Center for Pharmacological Evaluation | Luo Y.,Chongqing Medical University
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine

To investigate the role and mechanism of catalpol on neuroprotective effects and memory enhancing effects simultaneously, neuroprotective effects of catalpol were assessed by neurological deficits score, TTC staining, and cerebral blood flow detecting. Morris water maze was employed to investigate its effects on learning and memory and then clarify its possible mechanisms relating the central cholinergic system and BDNF. Edaravone and oxiracetam were used for positive control drugs based on its different action. Results showed that catalpol and edaravone significantly facilitated neurological function recovery, reduced infarction volume, and increased cerebral blood flow in stroke mice. Catalpol and oxiracetam decreased the escape latency significantly and increased the numbers of crossing platform obviously. The levels of ACh, ChAT, and BDNF in catalpol group were increased in a dose-dependent manner, and AChE declined with a U-shaped dose-response curve. Moreover, the levels of muscarinic AChR subtypes M1 and M2 in hippocampus were considerably raised by catalpol. These results demonstrated that catalpol may be useful for neuroprotection and memory enhancement, and the mechanism may be related to the central cholinergic system. © 2013 Dong Wan et al. Source

Xue Q.,Southwest University | Liu Y.,Southwest University | He R.,Southwest University | Yang S.,Southwest University | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Biological Sciences

Hunting for an effective medicine for brain stroke has been a medical task in neuroscience for decades. The present research showed that the lyophilized Powder of Catalpol and Puerarin (C-P) in all the tested doses (65.4 mg/kg, 32.7 mg/kg, 16.4 mg/kg) significantly reduced the neurological deficiency, infarct volume and apoptotic cells in ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) rats. It also promoted astrocyte processes and prolonged neuron axons in infarct area. Further, it decreased MDA, NO, NF-κB/p65, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 and enhanced the EPOR and GAF-43. 65.4 mg/kg and 32.7 mg/kg C-P could up-regulated EPO and VEGF significantly. In vitro, 49 μg/mL and 24.5 μg/mL C-P decreased the leakage of sodium fluorescein and increased the activity of γ-GTP. Additionally, it increased SOD and decreased MDA, NO, and LDH and decreased NF-κB/p65, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 and unregulated EPO, EPOR, VEGF, and GAP-43. Only the dose of 49 μg/mL increased TEER and Claudin-5 and turned the typically damaged morphologies of neurons, astrocytes and endothelium into a favorable trend. These data imply that C-P improved the recovery of neurological deficiency in motor, sense, balance and reflex, and protected the whole NVU by anti-oxidative stress, anti-inflammation and up-regulating some protective factors. This research provides a candidate medicine for brain stroke and, at the same time, a pattern for drug study targeting NVU in vitro. © Ivyspring International Publisher. Source

Tang D.-D.,Southwest University | Li N.,Southwest University | Wang L.-W.,Southwest University | Zhang J.-F.,Southwest University | And 2 more authors.
Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi

To study the interaction of drugs of different properties, namely puerarin, borneol and catalpol iu the process of inclusion, in order to explore the inclusion regilarity of inulti-coiujxnient and multi-property traditional Chinese medicine compound inclusions. With HP-β-CD as the inclusion material, the freeze-drying method was used to prepare the inclusion. The inclusion between puerarin, borneol and catalpol was tested by i easuring the inclusion concentration, DSC and X-ray diffraction. According to the findings, when insoluble drugs puerarin and lx>rneol were included simultaneously, and puerarin was ovenlosed, puerarin included was almost equal to puerarin included, and bonieol was not included. When puerarin was under-dosed, and HP-β-CD was overdosed, borneol was included, and the simultaneous inclusion was lower than the separate inclusion of borneol. When water-soluble drug catalpol was jointly included with puerarin or borneol, the simultaneous inclusion was almost the same with their separate inclusion, without characteristic peak of catalpol iu DSC and X-ray diffraction patterns. There is a competition iu the simultaneous inclusion between water-soluble drugs puerarin and borneol and a stronger competition iu puerarin. The water-soluble drug catalpol could lx included with HP-β-CD with no impact on the inclusion of puerarin or borneol. Source

Xue Q.,Southwest University | Xue Q.,Chongqing Engineering Research Center for Pharmacological Evaluation | Liu Y.,Southwest University | Liu Y.,Chongqing Engineering Research Center for Pharmacological Evaluation | And 10 more authors.
International Journal of Biological Sciences

A novel triple cell neurovascular unit (NVU) model co-culturing with neurons, brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) and astrocytes was established in this study for investigating the cerebral diseases and screening the candidates of therapeutic drug. We have first performed the cell identification and morphological characterization, analyzed the specific protein expression and determined the blood-brain barrier (BBB) function of the co-culture model under normal condition. Then, we further determined the BBB function, inflammation, cell injury and the variation of neuroprotective factor in this model after anoxia-reoxygenation. The results suggest that this model exhibited a better BBB function and significantly increased expression of P-glycoprotein (Pg-P) and ZO-1 compared with BMECs only or co-culture with astrocytes or neurons. After anoxia-reoxygenation, the pathological changes of this model were basically resemblance to the pathological changes of brain cells and BBB in vivo. And nimodipine, an antagonist of calcium, could reverse those changes as well. According to our observations, we deduce that this triple cell co-culture model exhibits the basic structure, function and cell-cell interaction of NVU, which may offer a more proper in vitro system of NVU for the further investigation of cerebral diseases and drug screening. © Ivyspring International Publisher. Source

Liu Y.,Southwest University | Liu Y.,Chongqing Engineering Research Center for Pharmacological Evaluation | Xue Q.,Southwest University | Xue Q.,Chongqing Engineering Research Center for Pharmacological Evaluation | And 14 more authors.
Microvascular Research

Brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), a main component of the blood-brain barrier, play a critical role in the pathogenesis of many brain diseases. The primary culture of BMECs has been used in various models for studying cerebrovascular diseases in vitro. However, there are still several problems existing in the isolation and cultivation of primary rat BMECs, such as low yield, contamination with other cell types, and requirement of a large number of animals and expensive growth factor. In this study, we describe a simple, economical (without any growth factor) and repeatable method to obtain endothelial cells with high purity (>99%) and yield (about 2.2×107 per rat) from cerebral cortexes of neonatal rat, mainly from gray matter. In vitro examinations determined that the isolated cells expressed typical phenotypic markers of differentiated brain endothelium such as multiple drug resistant protein, von Willebrand factor, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1/CD31), and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM). These cells also possessed morphological and ultra-structural characteristics that were observed by phase contrast microscope and electric microscope. Then GFAP and α-SMA were used, respectively, to identify astrocyte and pericyte which were potential to contaminate primary culturing of BMECs. And specific reaction of endothelial cells to external stimulation was tested by culture with TNF-α for 24h. All these results of our experiments supply that our protocol provides an effective and reliable method to obtain high purity and yield of rat BMECs and offers a useful tool for studying cellular physiology, cerebrovascular diseases, brain tumors, blood-brain barrier and neurovascular units, etc. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

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