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Chongqing, China

Xu H.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety | Li Y.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety | Liu A.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety | Zhang Q.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety | And 9 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2012

Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) in childhood can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia in adulthood, which is of increasing concern in transitional and advanced economies. The aim of the current study was to explore the prevalence of MetS among children from six cities of China. Methods. A total of 8,764 children (4,495 boys, 4,269 girls) aged 7-11 years were randomly selected from 6 cities of China. MetS was mainly defined by the criteria proposed by International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Results: The overall prevalence of MetS for children older than 10 years was 0.8% by IDF definition. Obese children had significantly higher MetS prevalence compared with their counterparts with overweight (6.6% vs. 0.9%, p < 0.01) and normal weight (6.6% vs. 0.05%, p < 0.01). The prevalence of abdominal obesity, high triglycerides, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension and high glucose among obese children was 93.4%, 16.5%, 14.3%, 7.3% and 4.0%, respectively, which significantly higher than those among overweight children (37.0%, 6.1%, 10.0%, 4.2%, and 3.3%, respectively) and among normal weight children (1.2%, 3.3%, 4.0%, 1.7% and 2.5%, respectively). The proportion of children with at least one, two, and three items of the metabolic abnormalities were 25.0%, 5.4% and 0.9%, respectively. Metabolic abnormalities were also present in children under 10 years of age. Conclusions: The early onset of MetS among children and relatively high proportions of children with at least one or two metabolic abnormalities in cities of China can increase the risk of developing MetS. It implies the necessity to take effective actions to control and prevent the rapid development of obesity among children in developing countries, especial those undergoing transition to a Western lifestyle. © 2011 Xu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Li Y.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety | Hu X.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety | Zhang Q.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety | Liu A.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety | And 12 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2010

Background. Childhood obesity and its related metabolic and psychological abnormalities are becoming serious health problems in China. Effective, feasible and practical interventions should be developed in order to prevent the childhood obesity and its related early onset of clinical cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a multi-centred random controlled school-based clinical intervention for childhood obesity in China. The secondary objective is to compare the cost-effectiveness of the comprehensive intervention strategy with two other interventions, one only focuses on nutrition education, the other only focuses on physical activity. Methods/Design. The study is designed as a multi-centred randomised controlled trial, which included 6 centres located in Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing, Shandong province, Heilongjiang province and Guangdong province. Both nutrition education (special developed carton style nutrition education handbook) and physical activity intervention (Happy 10 program) will be applied in all intervention schools of 5 cities except Beijing. In Beijing, nutrition education intervention will be applied in 3 schools and physical activity intervention among another 3 schools. A total of 9750 primary students (grade 1 to grade 5, aged 7-13 years) will participate in baseline and intervention measurements, including weight, height, waist circumference, body composition (bioelectrical impendence device), physical fitness, 3 days dietary record, physical activity questionnaire, blood pressure, plasma glucose and plasma lipid profiles. Data concerning investments will be collected in our study, including costs in staff training, intervention materials, teachers and school input and supervising related expenditure. Discussion. Present study is the first and biggest multi-center comprehensive childhood obesity intervention study in China. Should the study produce comprehensive results, the intervention strategies would justify a national school-based program to prevent childhood obesity in China. Trial Registration. Chinese clinical trial registry (Primary registry in the WHO registry network) Identifier: ChiCTR-TRC-00000402. © 2010 Li et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Shang X.W.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety | Shang X.W.,Peking Union Medical College | Liu A.L.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety | Zhang Q.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety | And 9 more authors.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences | Year: 2012

Objective: To explore the associations between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and obesity as well as obesity-related cardiometabolic disorders among children in China. Methods: A total of 6974 (boys 3558, girls 3412) children aged 6-13 years participated in the study. Each participant's height, weight, waist circumference, fasting glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured. The type of beverage consumption was determined using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: SSBs were consumed regularly by 46.1 of the children. The prevalence [adjusted odds ratio (95 confidence internal (CI)] of obesity was 7.6 [as the reference group (ref.)], 10.1 [1.36(1.07, 1.74)], and 11.6 [1.46(1.21, 1.75)], among children who regularly drank milk, other beverages and SSBs, respectively. Regularly drinking SSBs elevated the likelihood of abdominal obesity [adjusted odds ratio (95 CI): 1.36 (1.17, 1.59)]. The prevalence [adjusted odds ratio (95 CI)] of obesity among children who regularly drank sports/caloric beverages, carbonated beverages, sweet tea, and plant protein beverages was 16.8 [2.00(1.31, 3.07)], 12.7 [1.52(1.23, 1.88)], 11.5 [1.52(1.18, 1.95)], and 10.4 [1.41(1.03, 1.94)], respectively, which was higher than that of regular milk drinkers [7.6 (ref.)]. The prevalence [adjusted odds ratio (95 CI)] of abdominal obesity among children who regularly drank sweet tea, fruit/vegetable juices, and carbonated beverages was 17.7 [1.55(1.26, 1.90)], 16.2 [1.36(1.09, 1.70)], and 15.3 [1.24(1.03, 1.50)], respectively, which was much higher than that of regular milk drinkers [12.8 (ref.)]. Conclusions: Regular SSB consumption was positively related to obesity and abdominal obesity. This relationship should be investigated further using a longitudinal study design. © 2012 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences.

Geng W.,Capital Medical University | Yang Y.,Capital Medical University | Wu D.,Capital Medical University | Huang G.,Fudan University | And 9 more authors.
FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular characteristics of community-acquired, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) isolates from Chinese children. Ninety-nine isolates were collected from eight hospitals, and analyzed by multilocus sequence typing, staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) type, and spa typing. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene was also detected. Overall, 14 sequence types (STs) were obtained, and ST59 (58.6%) was found to be the most prevalent, followed by ST1 (8%) and ST338 (8%). We also first registered the new ST1409. SCCmec type IV was the most predominant type at 67.7%, followed by SCCmec type V at 32.3%. SCCmec subtypes IVa, IVc, and IVg were found among the SCCmec type IV strains. Twenty-one spa types were also identified. Four new spa types were found by synchronization with the Ridom SpaServer and referring to the website (). ST59-MRSA-IVa with t437 accounted for 40.4% of occurrences, making it the most prevalent clone. The prevalence of PVL genes was 58.6%, and multidrug resistance was observed in 95% of all isolates. This result indicates that CA-MRSA isolates in Chinese children are largely associated with the ST59-MRSA-IV clone, and that the predominant clones of CA-MRSA are spread all over the country. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

Li J.,Capital Medical University | Wang L.,Capital Medical University | Ip M.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Sun M.,Capital Medical University | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Detailed molecular analyses of Clonal Complex 59 (CC59) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from children in seven major cities across Mainland China were examined. A total of 110 CC59 isolates from invasive and non-invasive diseases were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), Staphylococcus cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Antibiotics susceptibilities, carriage of plasmids and 42 virulence genes and the expression of virulence factors were examined. ST59 (101/110, 91.8%) was the predominant sequence type (ST), while single locus variants (SLVs) belonging to ST338 (8/110, 7.3%) and ST375 (1/110, 0.9%) were obtained. Three SCCmec types were found, namely type III (2.7%), type IV (74.5%) and type V (22.7%). Seven spa types including t437, which accounted for 87.3%, were determined. Thirteen PFGE types were obtained. PFGE types A and B were the major types totally accounting for 81.8%. The dominant clone was ST59-t437-IVa (65.5%), followed by ST59-t437-V (14.5%). The positive rate of luks-PV and lukF-PV PVL encoding (pvl) gene was 55.5%. Plasmids were detected in 83.6% (92/110) of the strains. The plasmid size ranging from 23.4 kb to 50 kb was most prevalent which accounted for 83.7% (77/92). A significantly lower expression of hla was found in ST59-t437-IVa compared with ST59-t437-V. Among the 110 cases, 61.8% of the patients were less than 1 year old. A total of 90 cases (81.8%) were community-associated (CA) infections whereas 20 cases (18.2%) were hospital-associated (HA) infections. Out of the 110 patients, 36.4% (40/110) were diagnosed with invasive infectious diseases in which ST59-t437-IVa accounted for 67.5% (27/40). In brief, ST59-t437-IVa was proved as the dominant clone in CC59 MRSA strains. The carriage rate of pvl gene was high. CC59 MRSA could result in CA and HA infections. The majortiy of MRSA infection children were in young age. © 2013 Li et al.

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