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Xu H.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety | Li Y.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety | Liu A.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety | Zhang Q.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety | And 9 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2012

Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) in childhood can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia in adulthood, which is of increasing concern in transitional and advanced economies. The aim of the current study was to explore the prevalence of MetS among children from six cities of China. Methods. A total of 8,764 children (4,495 boys, 4,269 girls) aged 7-11 years were randomly selected from 6 cities of China. MetS was mainly defined by the criteria proposed by International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Results: The overall prevalence of MetS for children older than 10 years was 0.8% by IDF definition. Obese children had significantly higher MetS prevalence compared with their counterparts with overweight (6.6% vs. 0.9%, p < 0.01) and normal weight (6.6% vs. 0.05%, p < 0.01). The prevalence of abdominal obesity, high triglycerides, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension and high glucose among obese children was 93.4%, 16.5%, 14.3%, 7.3% and 4.0%, respectively, which significantly higher than those among overweight children (37.0%, 6.1%, 10.0%, 4.2%, and 3.3%, respectively) and among normal weight children (1.2%, 3.3%, 4.0%, 1.7% and 2.5%, respectively). The proportion of children with at least one, two, and three items of the metabolic abnormalities were 25.0%, 5.4% and 0.9%, respectively. Metabolic abnormalities were also present in children under 10 years of age. Conclusions: The early onset of MetS among children and relatively high proportions of children with at least one or two metabolic abnormalities in cities of China can increase the risk of developing MetS. It implies the necessity to take effective actions to control and prevent the rapid development of obesity among children in developing countries, especial those undergoing transition to a Western lifestyle. © 2011 Xu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Zhang S.-Y.,General Hospital of Beijing Military Region | Xu M.-Y.,Aerospace Center Hospital | Xu H.-M.,Chongqing Childrens hospital | Li X.-J.,Shandong University | And 4 more authors.
Medicine (United States) | Year: 2015

Viral encephalitis is a serious complication of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), but characteristics of cytokines response in enterovirus 71 (EV-71) and/or coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) associated HFMD with or without viral encephalitis remained unclear. We performed a multigroup retrospective study and compared the serum cytokines concentrations among 16 encephalitis patients infected with EV-71 and CV-A16, 24 encephalitis patients with single EV-71 infection, 34 mild HFMD patients with EV-71 infection, 18 mild HFMD patients with CV-A16 infection, and 39 healthy control subjects. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-22, and IL-23 were significantly higher in encephalitis patients than in HFMD-alone patients when adjusting for age and sex; IL-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-4, IL-22, and IL-1β were significantly higher in HFMD-alone patients of EV-71 infection than in CV-A16 infected HFMD patients; cerebrospinal fluid level of IL-6 was lower in the EV-71/CV-A16 associated encephalitis than that in the EV-71 alone associated encephalitis patients. Over or low expression of the cytokines cascade in HFMD patients appears to play an important role in the elicitation of the immune response to EV-71 and CV-A16. These data will be used to define a cytokine profile, which might help to recognize HFMD patients with the high risk of developing encephalitis. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.


PubMed | Beijing Childrens Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Hunan Childrens Hospital, Imperial College London and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Paediatric anaesthesia | Year: 2016

Although some studies have investigated the potential predictors of perioperative mortality, there are few specifically for pediatrics.The aim of the retrospective study was to analyze potential preoperative risk factors and to develop a pediatric preoperative risk prediction score (PRPS), and to predict postoperative ICU admission and the incidence of perioperative death in pediatric patients.Patients who postoperatively admitted to ICU or died (occurred within 30 days after the surgery) from 263 607 pediatric surgical patients with age from 1 day to 14 years old in eight centers in China from October 2010 to September 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. About 5500 non-ICU admission and death patients were randomly selected from those 263 607 patients as controls for analysis comparison. Independent risk factors and a risk model were derived from these analyses, and were further assessed with the likelihood ratio test and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.There were 1812 ICU admission or death patients but 187 patients records are incomplete. There were 487 patients with incomplete records among 5500 controls. Collectively, data from 6626 patients were enrolled in final analyses. With multiple logistic regression analysis, age, ASA physical status, SpO2 , prematurity, and unfasted status were found to be independent predictors for critical patients. The AUC value of 0.905 indicated excellent predictive performance between critical and noncritical predictors.Our study revealed that age, ASA physical status, SpO2 , prematurity, and unfasted status are risk factors to predict postoperative ICU admission and death in pediatric patients.


Shang X.W.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety | Shang X.W.,Peking Union Medical College | Liu A.L.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety | Zhang Q.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety | And 9 more authors.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences | Year: 2012

Objective: To explore the associations between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and obesity as well as obesity-related cardiometabolic disorders among children in China. Methods: A total of 6974 (boys 3558, girls 3412) children aged 6-13 years participated in the study. Each participant's height, weight, waist circumference, fasting glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured. The type of beverage consumption was determined using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: SSBs were consumed regularly by 46.1 of the children. The prevalence [adjusted odds ratio (95 confidence internal (CI)] of obesity was 7.6 [as the reference group (ref.)], 10.1 [1.36(1.07, 1.74)], and 11.6 [1.46(1.21, 1.75)], among children who regularly drank milk, other beverages and SSBs, respectively. Regularly drinking SSBs elevated the likelihood of abdominal obesity [adjusted odds ratio (95 CI): 1.36 (1.17, 1.59)]. The prevalence [adjusted odds ratio (95 CI)] of obesity among children who regularly drank sports/caloric beverages, carbonated beverages, sweet tea, and plant protein beverages was 16.8 [2.00(1.31, 3.07)], 12.7 [1.52(1.23, 1.88)], 11.5 [1.52(1.18, 1.95)], and 10.4 [1.41(1.03, 1.94)], respectively, which was higher than that of regular milk drinkers [7.6 (ref.)]. The prevalence [adjusted odds ratio (95 CI)] of abdominal obesity among children who regularly drank sweet tea, fruit/vegetable juices, and carbonated beverages was 17.7 [1.55(1.26, 1.90)], 16.2 [1.36(1.09, 1.70)], and 15.3 [1.24(1.03, 1.50)], respectively, which was much higher than that of regular milk drinkers [12.8 (ref.)]. Conclusions: Regular SSB consumption was positively related to obesity and abdominal obesity. This relationship should be investigated further using a longitudinal study design. © 2012 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences.


PubMed | Chinese University of Hong Kong, Dartmouth College, Chongqing Childrens Hospital and Chongqing Medical University
Type: | Journal: Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research | Year: 2016

MYCN is one of the most well-characterized genetic markers of neuroblastoma (NB). However, the mechanisms as to how MYCN mediate NB tumorigenesis is not fully clear. Increasing evidence has confirmed that the dysregulation of miRNAs is involved in MYCN-mediated NB tumorigenesis, supporting their potential as therapeutic targets for NB. Though miR-221 has been reported as one of the upregulated miRNAs, the interplay between miR-221 and MYCN-mediated NB progression remains largely elusive.The expression of miR-221 in the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from 31 confirmed NB patients was detected by locked nucleic acid-in situ hybridization and qRT-PCR. The correlation between miR-221 expression and clinical features in NB patients were assessed. The mechanisms as to how miR-221 regulate MYCN in NB were addressed. The effect of miR-221 on cellular proliferation in NB were determined both in vitro and in vivo.miR-221 was significantly upregulated in NB tumor cells and tissues that overexpress MYCN, and high expression of miR-221 was positively associated with poor survival in NB patients. Nemo-like kinase (NLK) as a direct target of miR-221 in NB were verified. In addition, overexpression of miR-221 decreased LEF1 phosphorylation, but increased the expression of MYCN via targeting of NLK and further regulated cell cycle, particularly in S-phase, promoting the growth of NB cells.This study provides a novel insight for miR-221 in the control of NB cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, suggesting potentials of miR-221 as a prognosis marker and therapeutic target for patients with MYCN overexpressing NB.


Geng W.,Capital Medical University | Yang Y.,Capital Medical University | Wu D.,Capital Medical University | Huang G.,Fudan University | And 9 more authors.
FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular characteristics of community-acquired, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) isolates from Chinese children. Ninety-nine isolates were collected from eight hospitals, and analyzed by multilocus sequence typing, staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) type, and spa typing. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene was also detected. Overall, 14 sequence types (STs) were obtained, and ST59 (58.6%) was found to be the most prevalent, followed by ST1 (8%) and ST338 (8%). We also first registered the new ST1409. SCCmec type IV was the most predominant type at 67.7%, followed by SCCmec type V at 32.3%. SCCmec subtypes IVa, IVc, and IVg were found among the SCCmec type IV strains. Twenty-one spa types were also identified. Four new spa types were found by synchronization with the Ridom SpaServer and referring to the website (). ST59-MRSA-IVa with t437 accounted for 40.4% of occurrences, making it the most prevalent clone. The prevalence of PVL genes was 58.6%, and multidrug resistance was observed in 95% of all isolates. This result indicates that CA-MRSA isolates in Chinese children are largely associated with the ST59-MRSA-IV clone, and that the predominant clones of CA-MRSA are spread all over the country. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.


Li J.,Capital Medical University | Wang L.,Capital Medical University | Ip M.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Sun M.,Capital Medical University | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Detailed molecular analyses of Clonal Complex 59 (CC59) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from children in seven major cities across Mainland China were examined. A total of 110 CC59 isolates from invasive and non-invasive diseases were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), Staphylococcus cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Antibiotics susceptibilities, carriage of plasmids and 42 virulence genes and the expression of virulence factors were examined. ST59 (101/110, 91.8%) was the predominant sequence type (ST), while single locus variants (SLVs) belonging to ST338 (8/110, 7.3%) and ST375 (1/110, 0.9%) were obtained. Three SCCmec types were found, namely type III (2.7%), type IV (74.5%) and type V (22.7%). Seven spa types including t437, which accounted for 87.3%, were determined. Thirteen PFGE types were obtained. PFGE types A and B were the major types totally accounting for 81.8%. The dominant clone was ST59-t437-IVa (65.5%), followed by ST59-t437-V (14.5%). The positive rate of luks-PV and lukF-PV PVL encoding (pvl) gene was 55.5%. Plasmids were detected in 83.6% (92/110) of the strains. The plasmid size ranging from 23.4 kb to 50 kb was most prevalent which accounted for 83.7% (77/92). A significantly lower expression of hla was found in ST59-t437-IVa compared with ST59-t437-V. Among the 110 cases, 61.8% of the patients were less than 1 year old. A total of 90 cases (81.8%) were community-associated (CA) infections whereas 20 cases (18.2%) were hospital-associated (HA) infections. Out of the 110 patients, 36.4% (40/110) were diagnosed with invasive infectious diseases in which ST59-t437-IVa accounted for 67.5% (27/40). In brief, ST59-t437-IVa was proved as the dominant clone in CC59 MRSA strains. The carriage rate of pvl gene was high. CC59 MRSA could result in CA and HA infections. The majortiy of MRSA infection children were in young age. © 2013 Li et al.


Geng W.,Capital Medical University | Yang Y.,Capital Medical University | Wu D.,Capital Medical University | Zhang W.,Tianjing Childrens Hospital | And 8 more authors.
Pediatric Pulmonology | Year: 2010

Community-acquired, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has been associated with morbidity and mortality in various countries. In this study, we characterized the molecular and clinical features of pediatricCA-MRSApneumonia in China. Between June 2006 and February 2008, 55 previously healthy children confined in eight hospitals countrywide were found to be afflicted with CA-MRSA pneumonia. A total of 55 strains collected from these children were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), Staphylococcus cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, and spa typing. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene was also detected. Overall, nine STswere obtained, with ST59 (40.4%) established to be the most prevalent type. We first registered the new ST1409 from a child with necrotizing pneumonia. SCCmecIVa was the most predominant type, followed by SCCmec type V. Twelve spa types were identified, of which one new spa type, t5348,was first detected and registered. One typical livestock-associated spa type, t034, was found in a 4-month-old girl living in the countryside.We also found that 40% of those isolates were PVL-positive. In addition, the median age of the children in this study was 10 months. A total of 69% (38/55) of the children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) had preceding influenza or influenza-like illness, and three ST910-MRSA-IV strains (PVL gene-positive) were associated with severe necrosis. The results indicated that the recent CA-MRSA found in Chinese children with CAP was largely associated with the spread of the ST59-MRSA-IV clone, and most of the PVL-positive strains in this study did not cause necrotic cases. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


Wu X.-M.,Chongqing Molecular Medicine and Cancer Research Center | Liu X.,Chongqing Childrens Hospital | Jiao Q.-F.,Chongqing Molecular Medicine and Cancer Research Center | Jiao Q.-F.,Chongqing Medical University | And 8 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2014

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the primary etiologic agent of cervical cancer. Consideration of safety and non human leukocyte antigen restriction, protein vaccine has become the most likely form of HPV therapeutic vaccine, although none have so far been reported as effective. Since tumor cells consistently express the two proteins E6 and E7, most therapeutic vaccines target one or both of them. In this study, we fabricated DC vaccines by transducing replication-defective recombinant adenoviruses expressing E6/E7 fusion gene of HPV-16, to investigate the lethal effects of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) against CaSki cells in vitro. Mouse immature dendritic cells (DC) were generated from bone marrow, and transfected with pAd-E6/E7 to prepare a DC vaccine and to induce specific CTL. The surface expression of CD40, CD68, MHC II and CD11c was assessed by flow cytometry (FCM), and the lethal effects of CTL against CaSki cells were determined by DAPI, FCM and CCK-8 methods. Immature mouse DC was successfully transfected by pAd-E6/E7 in vitro, and the transfecting efficiency was 40%-50%. A DC vaccine was successfully prepared and was used to induce specific CTL. Experimental results showed that the percentage of apoptosis and killing rate of CaSki cells were significantly increased by coculturing with the specific CTL (p <0.05). These results illustrated that a DC vaccine modified by HPV-16 E6/E7 gene can induce apoptosis of CaSki cells by inducing CTL, which may be used as a new strategy for biological treatment of cervical cancer.


Objective: To investigate the effect of ginsenoside Rh2 on proliferation and apoptosis of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE2 cell strain as well as the relevant mechanism. Methods: CNE2 cells at logarithmic phase were treated with Rh2 at various concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 μmol/L) for various (24, 48 and 72) hours, using those in routine culture as control, and determined for proliferative activity by MTT assay. CNE2 cells were treated with Rh2 at the optimal concentration for 24, 48 and 72 h respectively, then observed for apoptotic morphology by Hoechst staining, observed for apoptotic rate, distribution of cell cycles and change of membrane potential by flow cytometry, and determined by expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase-3, Cyclin Dl and p53 proteins by Western blot Results: Rh2 showed significantly inhibitory effect on the proliferation of CNE2 cells significantly, in dose- and time-dependent manners, while the optimal concentration and time for treatment were 60 μ,mol/L and 72 h respectively. After treatment with Rh2 for 48 and 72 h, the number of apoptotic CNE2 cells increased, while the volume decreased, and the phenomena such as uneven nuclear chromatin,nuclear condensation, nuclear fragmentation and increased aggregation at edge appeared. As compared with those in control group, the apoptosis rate of CNE2 cells after treatment with 60 μ,mol/L Rh2 for 24, 48 and 72 h increased gradually (P < 0. 01), while the percentage in G0/G1 phase increased gradually (P < 0. 01) and those in S (P < 0. 01) and G2/M phases decreased gradually, and the membrane potential decreased gradually (P< 0. 05); the expression of proapoptosis protein Bax, cleaved Caspase-3 and P53 increased (P< 0. 05), while those of antiapoptosis protein Bcl-2 and cell cycle-associated protein Cyclin 1029 Dl decreased (P < 0. 05). Conclusion: Ginsenoside Rh2 inhibited the proliferation of CNE2 cells, arrested the cell cycle at G0/G1 phase and induced the cell apoptosis by a possible mechanism associated with Caspase / CyclinDl signaling pathway.

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