Yao Y.,China Agricultural University |
Li Y.,China Agricultural University |
Huang Z.,Chongqing Agricultural Technology Extension Station |
Yang H.,Guizhou Province Pepper Institute |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection | Year: 2016
Pepper Phytophthora blight, caused by Phytophthora capsici is the most destructive soilborne pathogen, can lead to serious economic losses in pepper. Some strains Trichoderma isolates can act as potential biocontrol agents and are able to control many plant diseases in crops. The present study was carried out to screen valid Trichoderma isolates against P. capsici and to study potential modes of action of involved. In vitro, the most successful isolate, Trichoderma HNA12, was able to inhibit P. capsici development and significantly reduce sporulation, inhibition effect for 62.3 % compared to the control treatment. Trichoderma HNA12 was further evaluated under field condition and, over a 2-year period, was able to significantly suppress P. capsici on root and stem parts giving a similar level of disease control as the fungicide thiram, and Trichoderma HNA12 showed the lowest disease index and significantly increases the plant stem heights and the fresh and dry weights. The mechanisms of action of Trichoderma HNA12 were postulated to be a combination of competition for space, production of antifungal metabolites and possible mycoparasitism. Mycoparasitism appeared to contribute to the aggressive nature of Trichoderma HNA12 against P. capsici when observed under scanning electron microscope. Trichoderma HNA12 was identified as T. Harzianum by molecular identification technology. The strategic approach described in this paper demonstrates an efficient way of screening microorganisms for biocontrol activity and validates the notion that certain microorganisms can be antagonistic to a variety of plant pathogens. © Deutsche Phythomedizinische Gesellschaft 2016.
Xiong W.,Chongqing Agricultural Technology Extension Station |
Tang W.,Chongqing Agriculture Committee |
Kong W.,Chongqing Agricultural Technology Extension Station |
Zeng Z.,Chongqing Agricultural Technology Extension Station |
And 5 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2013
The arable land per capita among the rural migrants located in the Three Gorges Reservoirs Area is only about 386.7 m2. The contradiction between people and their land is severe. After the impoundment of the Three Gorges Project, the water flow and the self-purification ability of the Yangtze River got slowed and declined which resulted in an overmuch growth of the green algae in main tributaries of the Yangtze River. Besides, to meet the electricity generation need in the dry winter or spring, and to prevent the deluge in the rainy summer, the Three Gorges Reservoir impound in the winter and spring, disembogue in the summer. Owing to this, the hydro-fluctuation belt along the river always outcrop into land in the hot and humid rainy summer, hence the hydro-fluctuation belt fail to intercept, absorb and filtrate the agricultural surface source pollution, which cause the increased pollution in the Yangtze River. The contradiction of the economic development and the environmental protection is severe. This research considered the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, the hydro-fluctuation area and the ecological barriers area as an entirety, and combined the specialty agriculture industries, such as: citrus, livestock and fishing industry with the newly developed agricultural technologies, like the orange residue self-drying and high temperature fermentation under aerobic environment technology along with its dedicated organic fertilizers, the biogas slurry pipeline irrigation fertilization integrated device, citrus nutrition diagnosis testing fertilization technology and the new variety of submergence-tolerant pasture, on the basis of the principles of ecological agriculture and recycling economy. A recycling agriculture ecosystems demonstration area was built in the Dachang town, Wushan county, the hinterland of the Three Groges. Relying on the greening the Yangtze River citrus belt project, the hydro-fluctuation belt management project and forced removal of the cage fish culture facilities along the river project, we build three ecological economic zones which are reservoir bank citrus plantations, hydro-fluctuation belt wetland pastures and natural fishery around the reservoir bank to develop specialty industry economy. In this project we integrated "pig-biogas-fruit-residue-feed", "fruit-residue-fertilizer", "livestock-biogas-fruit-grass" and water cycle, developing a new four-chain crossed recycling economy networking mode, and an anti-season hydro-fluctuation area ecologically recycling agriculture progression mode. By using the farming manure as the fertilizer and the irrigation water of the citrus, and using the waste of citrus processing or hydro-fluctuation belt pasture as the feedings of the livestock, we established a system that using the waste of the previous level as the production resource in current level. Due to this system we set up a citrus, pigs, grazing livestock, Yangtze fish and other specialty industrial that industrial symbiosis, coupling elements, the overall recycling and comprehensive utilization of industrial ecological chain in the very area. Also by building biogas project, citrus barrier forest, cut flood engineering, wetland pastures and fishery as 5-layer intercept network, we can block, absorb and digest the area source pollution. With this project we are able to increase the vegetation coverage of the reservoir bank, the income of the migrants and protect the environment of the Three Gorges Reservoirs Area. The established specialty recycling agriculture ecological demonstration area in Dachang Lake, Wushan county will cover the core area of 135 hm2. The 2 km long hydro-fluctuation area will be fully covered by the pasture and the cover ratio of the forest will be over 80 percent. The whole area will be fully covered by plants, and those wastes like farming excrement, waste straw, citrus residue will be completely reutilized and achieve the accomplishment of zero emission. Besides, the citrus yield in the demonstration area will be about 30 tons each hectare and the yield of pasture will be about 33 tons each hectare, which means that the output value per hectare will be over 150, 000 Yuan. This area is showing the possibility that increasing the migrants' income and purifying the Yangtze River synchronously.
Wu W.,Southwest University |
Tang X.-P.,Chongqing Meteorological Bureau |
Guo N.-J.,Southwest University |
Yang C.,Southwest University |
And 2 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Climatology | Year: 2013
Soil temperature data are critical for understanding land-atmosphere interactions. However, in many cases, they are limited at both spatial and temporal scales. In the current study, an attempt was made to predict monthly mean soil temperature at a depth of 10 cm using artificial neural networks (ANNs) over a large region with complex terrain. Gridded independent variables, including latitude, longitude, elevation, topographic wetness index, and normalized difference vegetation index, were derived from a digital elevation model and remote sensing images with a resolution of 1 km. The good performance and robustness of the proposed ANNs were demonstrated by comparisons with multiple linear regressions. On average, the developed ANNs presented a relative improvement of about 44 % in root mean square error, 70 % in mean absolute percentage error, and 18 % in coefficient of determination over classical linear models. The proposed ANN models were then applied to predict soil temperatures at unsampled locations across the study area. Spatiotemporal variability of soil temperature was investigated based on the obtained database. Future work will be needed to test the applicability of ANNs for estimating soil temperature at finer scales. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Wien.
Liu H.-B.,Southwest University |
Gou Y.,Southwest University |
Wang H.-Y.,Southwest University |
Li H.-M.,Chongqing Agricultural Technology Extension Station |
Wu W.,Southwest University
International Journal of Biometeorology | Year: 2014
Knowledge of variability in climatic variables changes and its impact on crop yields is important for farmers and policy makers, especially in southwestern China where rainfed agriculture is dominant. In the current study, six climatic parameters (mean temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, sunshine hours, temperature difference, and rainy days) and aggregated yields of three main crops (rice: Oryza sativa L., oilseed rape: Brassica napus L., and tobacco: Nicotiana tabacum L.) during 1985-2010 were collected and analyzed for Chongqing-a large agricultural municipality of China. Climatic variables changes were detected by Mann-Kendall test. Increased mean temperature and temperature difference and decreased relative humidity were found in annual and oilseed rape growth time series (P < 0.05). Increased sunshine hours were observed during the oilseed rape growth period (P < 0.05). Rainy days decreased slightly in annual and oilseed rape growth time series (P < 0.10). Correlation analysis showed that yields of all three crops could benefit from changes in climatic variables in this region. Yield of rice increased with rainfall (P < 0.10). Yield of oilseed rape increased with mean temperature and temperature difference but decreased with relative humidity (P < 0.01). Tobacco yield increased with mean temperature (P < 0.05). Path analysis provided additional information about the importance and contribution paths of climatic variables to crop yields. Temperature difference and sunshine hours had higher direct and indirect effects via other climatic variables on yields of rice and tobacco. Mean temperature, relative humidity, rainy days, and temperature difference had higher direct and indirect effects via others on yield of oilseed rape. © 2013 ISB.