Chongqing Academy of Chinese Materia Medica

Chongqing, China

Chongqing Academy of Chinese Materia Medica

Chongqing, China
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Fan G.,Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Zhang M.Y.,China Agricultural University | Zhou X.D.,Chongqing Medical University | Lai X.R.,Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | And 4 more authors.
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2012

Rhizoma coptidis, a broadly used traditional Chinese medicine, derives from the dried rhizomes of Coptis chinensis Franch, Coptis deltoidea C.Y. Cheng et Hsiao and Coptis teeta Wall. Quantitative determination of protoberberine alkaloids in R. coptidis is critical for controlling its quality. In this study, a rapid, simple and accurate quantitative 1H NMR (qNMR) method was developed for simultaneous determination of berberine, jatrorrhizine, epiberberine, coptisine, palmatine and columbamine in R. coptidis from the three species. Method validation was performed in terms of selectivity, precision, repeatability, stability, accuracy, robustness and linearity. The average recoveries obtained were in the range of 96.9-102.4% for all the six alkaloids. In addition, the qNMR data were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA), hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), and the results showed that the contents of the active alkaloids have significant difference among the three species. Compared with the conventional HPLC approach, the proposed qNMR method was demonstrated to be a powerful tool for quantifying the six alkaloids due to its unique advantages of high robustness, rapid analysis time and no need of standard compounds for calibration curves preparation. These findings indicate that this method has potential as a reliable method for quality evaluation of herb medicines, especially for protoberberine alkaloid-containing ones. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Wu Z.,Chongqing Academy of Chinese Materia Medica | Li H.,Chongqing Institute for Food and Drug Control | Yang Y.,Chongqing Academy of Chinese Materia Medica | Tan H.,Chongqing Academy of Chinese Materia Medica
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2015

The dried flower buds of L. macranthoides, belong to the item Shan Yin Hua, are widely used as raw materials for pharmaceutical, food additive, healthy food and cosmetic industry in China. To optimize the effects of the ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) processing parameters on the yield of L. macranthoides polysaccharides (LMPs), a response surface methodology with a central composite rotatable design was employed. Four independent variables were investigated: ultrasonic power (X1), temperature (X2), time (X3), and the ratio of water volume to raw material weight (W/M ratio, X4). The experimental data were fitted to a quadratic polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis and also examined using appropriate statistical methods. The optimum conditions were: X1, 113.6W; X2, 71.5°C; X3, 54.7min; and X4, 30.7mL/g. Under the optimal conditions, the extraction yield of LMPs was (4.81±0.12)%, which is in close agreement with the value predicted by the statistical model. Further, LMPs were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, TGA/DSC and NMR. In vitro experiments indicated that LMPs had strong scavenging capacities towards the DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. Overall, LMPs may have potential applications in the medical and food industries. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Wu Z.,Chongqing Academy of Chinese Materia Medica | Li H.,Chongqing Academy of Metrology and Quality Inspection | Yang Y.,Chongqing Academy of Chinese Materia Medica | Zhan Y.,Chongqing Academy of Chinese Materia Medica | Tu D.,Chongqing Academy of Metrology and Quality Inspection
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

Finger citron (Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis) (FC) fruits, widely cultivated in the southern provinces of China, are commonly used as a traditional Chinese medicinal material. The study was conducted to determine variations of essential oils (EOs) yield, composition and antioxidant activities during three maturation stages in FC fruits. EOs yields showed marked increase during maturation process. EOs composition obtained by hydrodistillation was characterized by GC-MS. In total, 27, 22 and 22 components were identified and quantified in immature, intermediate and mature stages, representing 99.56%, 99.38% and 99.54% of the total detected constituents, respectively. The content of limonene, the main component, varied between 32.07% and 36.37%, and the variation was statistically significant during maturation stages. The contents of some components, particularly α-thujone, 3-carene, α-pinene, β-pinene and γ-terpinene, varied significantly during maturation stages. Increasing maturity at harvest decreased antioxidant activities of finger citron EOs. Additionally, accumulation of monoterpene hydrocarbons and ketones was observed during maturation process. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Wu Z.,Chongqing Academy of Chinese Materia Medica | Li H.,Chongqing Academy of Metrology and Quality Inspection | Tu D.,Chongqing Academy of Metrology and Quality Inspection | Yang Y.,Chongqing Academy of Chinese Materia Medica | Zhan Y.,Chongqing Academy of Chinese Materia Medica
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

Finger citron (Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis) (FC) fruits, widely cultivated in the southern provinces of China, have been long used as traditional Chinese medicinal material. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction conditions of crude polysaccharides (FCPs) from FC fruits with a central composite design. Three independent variables such as extraction temperature (°C), extraction time (h), and ratio of water to raw material were investigated. The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis. The 3-D response surface plot and the contour plot derived from the mathematical models were applied to determine the optimal conditions. The optimum conditions were as follows: extraction temperature 100. °C, extraction time 1.5. h, and ratio of water to raw material 40. Under these conditions, the experimental value was 3.19. ±. 0.10%, which is well in close agreement with value predicted by the model. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry spectra revealed the general characteristic absorption peaks of FCPs. Then, we demonstrated that FCPs had strong scavenging activities in vitro on DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals. Overall, FCPs may have potential applications in the medical and food industries. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Yang X.,Southwest University | Yang X.,Chongqing University | Zhang X.,Chongqing Academy of Chinese Materia Medica | Yang S.-P.,Southwest University | Liu W.-Q.,Chongqing University
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2013

In the present study, the antimicrobial tests of patchouli oil were studied by using molecular docking technology and antimicrobial test in vitro. Five biological macromolecule enzymes, required by the bacteria in the process of biosynthesis were selected as target molecules. Five antibiotics benzylpenicillin, sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, rifampicin and ciprofloxacin, which are generally acknowledged as antibacterial drugs, were selected as reference compounds. The 3 three-dimensional (3D) structures of the 5 reference compounds and 26 compounds from patchouli oil were established by using surflex-dock software (8.1). And the 3D structures of fve biological macromolecule enzymes derived from Protein Data Bank (PDB). Molecular docking was carried out between the 31 chemical compounds (ligands) and the 5 enzymes (receptors) by using surflex-dock function. Furthermore, the antibacterial effects of 31 chemical compounds were investigated by the scoring function after molecular docking was completed. By comparing the scoring result of 26 compounds in patchouli oil with 5 compared components, we inferred antibacterial activity in about 26 compounds in patchouli oil. On the other hand, six frequently-used pathogenic bacteria were selected for antimicrobial test in vitro, patchouli oil and its two major compounds: (-)-patchouli alcohol and pogostone, which their contents exceeded 60% in patchouli oil samples, were selected antibacterial agents. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were also determined. Molecular docking technology and antimicrobial test in vitro proved that patchouli oil had strong antimicrobial effects. Particularly, pogostone and (-)-patchouli alcohol have potent antimicrobial activity. © 2013 by School of Pharmacy.


Zhang Y.,Chongqing Academy of Chinese Materia Medica
Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica | Year: 2012

To study the population dynamics of aphid on Lonicera macranthoides and their natural enemy in Xiushan and control method of pesticide so as to provide scientific basis for its integrated pests management (IPM). The field investigation and the field controlling trial were carried out for the research. Semiaphis heraclei was the dominant species among L. macranthoides aphids. The population dynamics of apterous aphids went through five consecutive stages: initial, fluctuating, rising, peak and declining. The population dynamics of alate aphids was 4-7 days later than that apterous aphid's. Significant positive correlations were found between the population size of spiders and ladybugs which were natural enemies and number of aphids. The result of pesticides against aphids in field trial showed that 25% thiamethoxam WG, 70% imidacloprid WG and 20% acetamiprid WP had well controlling effect. Aphids on L. macranthoides could be well controlled while 25% thiamethoxam WG, 70% imidacloprid WG and 20% acetamiprid WP are sprayed during the period of aphid population raising, the early April to the mid May.


Wang P.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Song X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Song X.,Chongqing Academy of Chinese Materia Medica | Zhang H.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology | Year: 2013

For selecting potential biological agents to control Dialeurodes citri, a major insect pest in China's citrus orchards, 75 native Aschersonia isolates were selected from infected whiteflies in citrus orchards and were evaluated for virulence to third instar nymphs of D. citri at a concentration of 1×106conidia/ml. The mortality rates of D. citri varied from 0% to 72.70%. Among the 75 Aschersonia isolates, three (HB10, HB12 and ZJ9) were the most virulent and pathogenic to D. citri and caused more than 69% mortality. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values of them were 1.86×106, 3.40×106 and 6.81×106conidia/ml, respectively. The three isolates also produced conidia abundantly on potato dextrose agar medium (3.95×106, 6.19×106 and 7.34×106conidia/cm2, respectively). They were identified to be Aschersonia placenta based on their morphological analysis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these three highly virulent Aschersonia isolates belong to a strongly supported clade that includes two other A. placenta isolates obtained from Vietnam and Thailand. In summary, these results indicate the possibility of developing the three most virulent A. placenta isolates as microbiological control agents against citrus whitefly. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Zhang Y.,Chongqing Academy of Chinese Materia Medica
Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica | Year: 2012

To study the occurrence of Cercospora leaf spot of Lonicera macrathoides and fungicides control method, so as to provide scientific basis for its integrated pests management (IPM). The field investigation and the field controlling trial were carried out for the research. Cercospora leaf spot was caused by C. rhamni. There was obvious relationship between the damage rate and the altitude, soil organic matter, available K, available P as well as variety. The controlling effect of 10% difenoconazole WG was the highest. 50% Thiram WP, 70% Mancozeb WP also had well controlling effect. Cercospora leaf spot of L. macrathoides could be controlled by suitability agricultural and chemical controls.


Yang Y.,Chongqing Academy of Chinese Materia Medica
Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica | Year: 2012

To establish a method for determination of 10 ingredients such as gentiopicroside, sweroside, and mangiferin in India swertia, and settle the index components and their limits. By Welch materials AQ-C18 column, determination was conducted by the gradient elution with methanol and 0.4% formic acid as mobile phase, with column temperature 30 degrees C, flow rate at 1.0 mL x min(-1), and 254 nm as the detection wavelength. The linear relatives of 10 ingredients were good. The method showed the high precision and good reproducibility, and recovery rates were between 97% and 103%. The ingredients of market com-modities varied greatly. This method is simple, sensitive, reproducible, and applicable to the determination of the main ingredients in India Swertia. Sweroside and mango glycosides were suggested as the index components for determination in Jia Di (Swertia chirayita), and their content limits are not less than 0.1%, 0.3%, respectively.


Wu Z.,Chongqing Academy of Chinese Materia Medica
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2015

Traditionally, people like to take dried finger citron fruits (FC) as adjuvant herbal medicines to treat a diversity of chronic diseases like asthma, hypertension and respiratory tract infections. Many healing properties are attributed to FC polysaccharides (FCPs), one of the main active ingredients of FC. Three drying methods, freeze drying (FDM), hot air drying (HDM) and vacuum drying methods (VDM) were comparatively studied on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of FCPs. The results showed these FCPs were similar in UV and FT-IR spectrum. However, they showed significant differences (p<0.05) in yields of crude polysaccharides and contents of protein and ash. Compared with VDM and HDM, FDM resulted in the properties of FCPs with lower molecular weight distribution, higher reducing power and scavenging abilities on DPPH, OH, and O2 -. Available data obtained in vitro models suggested that FDM was an appropriate and effective treatment for obtaining crude polysaccharides from FC fruits. Hence, drying methods used for preparation of FCPs can affect physicochemical and associated functional properties. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

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