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Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Thai K.T.D.,University of Amsterdam | Nishiura H.,University Utrecht | Nishiura H.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | Hoang P.L.,Tropical Diseases Clinical Research Center | And 6 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2011

Background: This study aims to estimate the age-specific risks of clinical dengue attack (i.e., the risk of symptomatic dengue among the total number of dengue virus (DENV) infections) during primary and secondary infections. Methods: We analyzed two pieces of epidemiological information in Binh Thuan province, southern Vietnam, i.e., age-specific seroprevalence and a community-wide longitudinal study of clinical dengue attack. The latter data set stratified febrile patients with DENV infection by age as well as infection parity. A simple modeling approach was employed to estimate the age-specific risks of clinical dengue attack during primary and secondary infections. Results: Using the seroprevalence data, the force of infection was estimated to be 11.7% (95% confidence intervals (CI): 10.8-12.7) per year. Median age (and the 25-75 percentiles) of dengue fever patients during primary and secondary infections were 12 (9-20) and 20 (14-31) years, respectively. The estimated age-specific risk of clinical dengue increases as a function of age for both primary and secondary infections; the estimated proportion of symptomatic patients among the total number of infected individuals was estimated to be <7% for those aged <10 years for both primary and secondary infections, but increased as patients become older, reaching to 8-11% by the age of 20 years. Conclusions/Significance: For both primary and secondary infections, higher age at DENV infection was shown to result in higher risk of clinical attack. Age as an important modulator of clinical dengue explains recent increase in dengue notifications in ageing countries in Southeast Asia, and moreover, poses a paradoxical problem of an increase in adult patients resulting from a decline in the force of infection, which may be caused by various factors including time-dependent variations in epidemiological, ecological and demographic dynamics. © 2011 Thai et al.

Kanagalingam J.,Nanyang Technological University | Feliciano R.,Rush University Medical Center | Hah J.H.,Seoul National University | Labib H.,Dr Hussein Labib Dental Clinic | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Clinical Practice | Year: 2015

Aims To better inform medical practitioners on the role of antiseptics in oropharyngeal health and disease, this article focuses on povidone-iodine (PVP-I), an established and widely-available antiseptic agent. Methodology Review of the anti-infective profile, efficacy and safety of PVP-I in managing common upper respiratory tract infections such as the common cold, influenza and tonsillo-pharyngitis, as well as oral complications resulting from cancer treatment (oral mucositis), and dental conditions (periodontitis, caries). Results Antiseptics with broad-spectrum anti-infective activity and low resistance potential offer an attractive option in both infection control and prevention. While there is some evidence of benefit of antiseptics in a variety of clinical settings that include dental and oral hygiene, dermatology, oncology, and pulmonology, there appears to be discordance between the evidence-base and practice. This is especially apparent in the management and prevention of oropharyngeal infections, for which the use of antiseptics varies considerably between clinical practices, and is in marked contrast to their dermal application, where they are extensively used as both a prophylaxis and a treatment of skin and wound infections, thus minimising the use of antibiotics. Conclusion The link between oral and oropharyngeal health status and susceptibility to infection has long been recognised. The high rates of antibiotic misuse and subsequent development of bacterial resistance (e.g. increasing vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)) in large parts of the world, especially across Asia Pacific, highlight the need for identifying alternative antimicrobials that would minimise the use of these medications. This, together with recent large-scale outbreaks of, for example, avian and swine influenza virus, further underline the importance of an increasing armamentarium for infection prevention and control. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Tran T.M.,University of Missouri | Giang N.M.,Cho Ray Hospital
IJC Metabolic and Endocrine | Year: 2014

This article aims to discuss differences in pharmacological treatment through a period of 10. years from 2003 to 2013. Hypertension treatment faces many challenges because of patients' unawareness and adherence, clinical inertia, as well as rapid availability of new medical literature and trials. Since 2003, JNC 7 was published at nearly the same time with ESC/ESH Guidelines and WHO/ISH Statement on management of hypertension [1-3]. However, these guidelines are not homogenous in pharmacological therapy approach. Moreover, during the 10. years since 2003, many new large trials, data, and updated guidelines have resolved some main controversial problems in blood pressure (BP) goals in separate risk-categorized patients, levels of BP for initial antihypertensive therapy, choice of drugs in monotherapy, indication for drug combinations, and preferred combinations for special cases. The latest updated guidelines on hypertension treatment, 2013 ESC/ESH Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension, not only contain significant changes in the abovementioned problems, but also raise some new questions for the future research [4]. © 2014 The Authors.

Huynh T.-T.,Taipei Medical University | Huynh T.-T.,University of Medicine and Pharmacy | Rao Y.K.,Chaoyang University of Technology | Lee W.-H.,Taipei Medical University | And 9 more authors.
Toxicology in Vitro | Year: 2014

The aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays an important role in the carcinogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, the Wnt/β-catenin signaling molecules are attractive candidates for the development of targeted therapies for this disease. The present study showed that destruxin B (DB) inhibits the proliferation and induces the apoptosis of HCC cells by decreasing the protein expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and increasing the expression of the proapoptotic protein Bax. More importantly, DB also attenuates Wnt-signaling in HCC cells by downregulating β-catenin, Tcf4, and β-catenin/Tcf4 transcriptional activity, which results in the decreased expression of β-catenin target genes, such as cyclin D1, c-myc, and survivin. Furthermore, DB affects the migratory and invasive abilities of Sk-Hep1 cells through the suppression of markers of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). A synergistic anti-proliferative and migratory effect was achieved using the combination of DB and sorafenib in Sk-Hep1 cells. In conclusion, DB acts as a novel Wnt/β-catenin inhibitor and reduces the aggressiveness and invasive potential of HCC by altering the cells' EMT status and mobility. DB in combination with sorafenib may be considered for future clinical use for the management of metastatic HCC. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Li J.,Fudan University | Qin S.,Chinese Peoples Liberation Army | Xu R.,Sun Yat Sen University | Yau T.C.C.,University of Hong Kong | And 16 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2015

Background: In the international randomised phase 3 CORRECT trial (. NCT01103323), regorafenib significantly improved overall survival versus placebo in patients with treatment-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer. Of the 760 patients in CORRECT, 111 were Asian (mostly Japanese). This phase 3 trial was done to assess regorafenib in a broader population of Asian patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer than was studied in CORRECT. Methods: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, phase 3 trial done in 25 hospitals in mainland China, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and Vietnam, we recruited Asian patients aged 18 years or older with progressive metastatic colorectal cancer who had received at least two previous treatment lines or were unable to tolerate standard treatments. Patients had to have an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, life expectancy of at least 3 months, and adequate bone marrow, liver, and renal function, without other uncontrolled medical disorders. We randomly allocated patients (2:1; with a computer-generated unicentric randomisation list [prepared by the study funder] and interactive voice response system; block size of six; stratified by metastatic site [single vs multiple organs] and time from diagnosis of metastatic disease [<18 months vs ≥18 months]) to receive oral regorafenib 160 mg once daily or placebo on days 1-21 of each 28 day cycle; patients in both groups were also to receive best supportive care. Participants, investigators, and the study funder were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was overall survival, and we analysed data on an intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01584830. Findings: Between April 29, 2012, and Feb 6, 2013, we screened 243 patients and randomly assigned 204 patients to receive either regorafenib (136 [67%]) or placebo (68 [33%]). After a median follow-up of 7·4 months (IQR 4·3-12·2), overall survival was significantly better with regorafenib than it was with placebo (hazard ratio 0·55, 95% CI 0·40-0·77, one-sided p=0·00016; median overall survival 8·8 months [95% CI 7·3-9·8] in the regorafenib group vs 6·3 months [4·8-7·6] in the placebo group). Drug-related adverse events occurred in 132 (97%) of 136 regorafenib recipients and 31 (46%) of 68 placebo recipients. The most frequent grade 3 or higher regorafenib-related adverse events were hand-foot skin reaction (22 [16%] of 136 patients in the regorafenib group vs none in the placebo group), hypertension (15 [11%] vs two [3%] of 68 patients in the placebo group), hyperbilirubinaemia (nine [7%] vs one [1%]), hypophosphataemia (nine [7%] vs none), alanine aminotransferase concentration increases (nine [7%] vs none), aspartate aminotransferase concentration increases (eight [6%] vs none), lipase concentration increases (six [4%] vs one [1%]), and maculopapular rash (six [4%] vs none). Drug-related serious adverse events occurred in 12 (9%) patients in the regorafenib group and three (4%) in the placebo group. Interpretation: This phase 3 trial is the second to show an overall survival benefit with regorafenib compared with placebo in patients with treatment-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer, substantiating the role of regorafenib as an important treatment option for patients whose disease has progressed after standard treatments. In this trial, preceding standard treatments did not necessarily include targeted treatments. Adverse events were generally consistent with the known safety profile of regorafenib in this setting. Funding: Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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