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Biomass burning is a major source of indoor air pollution in rural India. The authors investigated in this study whether cumulative exposures to biomass smoke cause activation of the serine/threonine kinase Akt in airway cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). For this, the authors enrolled 87 premenopausal (median age 34 years), nonsmoking women who used to cook with biomass (wood, dung, crop wastes) and 85 age-matched control women who cooked with cleaner fuel liquefied petroleum gas. Immunocytochemical and immunoblotting assays revealed significantly higher levels of phosphorylated forms of Akt protein (p-Akt(ser473) and p-Akt(thr308)) in PBL, airway epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages, and neutrophils in sputum of biomass-using women than control. Akt activation in biomass users was associated with marked rise in generation of reactive oxygen species and concomitant depletion of superoxide dismutase. Measurement of particulate matter having a diameter of less than 10 and 2.5 μm in indoor air by real-time aerosol monitor showed 2 to 4 times more particulate pollution in biomass-using households, and Akt activation was positively associated with particulate pollution after controlling potential confounders. The findings suggest that chronic exposure to biomass smoke activates Akt, possibly via generation of oxidative stress. Source


Mukherjee S.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2014

Epigenetic regulators like histone deacetylases (1 and 2), and viral onco-proteins (E6/E7) are known to be overexpressed in cervical cancer cells. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of curcumin on HDACs (1 and 2) and HPV E6/E7 in the cervical cancer cell line SiHa and a drug resistant clone SiHaR (derived from SiHa). It was further intended to investigate whether curcumin could sensitize the cells towards cisplatin induced cell killing by modulation of multi drug resistant proteins like MRP1 and Pgp1. Curcumin inhibited HDACs, HPV expression and differentially increased acetylation and up-regulation of p53 in SiHa and SiHaR, leading to cell cycle arrest at G1-S phase. Up-regulation of pRb, p21, p27 and corresponding inhibition of cyclin D1 and CDK4 were observed. Cisplatin resistance in SiHaR due to over-expression of MRP1 and Pgp1 was overcome by curcumin. Curcumin also sensitized both the cervical cancer cells towards cisplatin induced cell killing. Inhibition of HDACs and HPVs led to cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase by alteration of cell cycle regulatory proteins. Suppression of MRP1 and Pgp1 by curcumin resulted in sensitization of cervical cancer cells, lowering the chemotherapeutic dose of the drug cisplatin. Source


Hui S.P.,University of Calcutta | Dutta A.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Ghosh S.,University of Calcutta
Developmental Dynamics | Year: 2010

Zebrafish proves to be an excellent model system to study spinal cord regeneration because it can repair its disengaged axons and replace lost cells after injury, allowing the animal to make functional recovery. We have characterized injury response following crush injury, which is comparable to the mammalian mode of injury. Infiltrations of blood cells during early phases involve macrophages that are important in debris clearance and probably in suppression of inflammatory response. Unlike mammals where secondary injury mechanisms lead to apoptotic death of both neurons and glia, here we observe a beneficial role of apoptotic cell death. Injury-induced proliferation, presence of radial glia cells, and their role as progenitor all contribute to cellular replacement and successful neurogenesis after injury in adult zebrafish. Together with cell replacement phenomenon, there is creation of a permissive environment that includes the absence or clearance of myelin debris, presence of Schwann cells, and absence of inflammatory response. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source


Basu P.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Mittal S.,Child in Need Institute
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research | Year: 2011

Aim: The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is recommended for adolescent girls and young women; however, the social structure in India will not permit vaccination of this age-group without parental approval. Our study aimed to explore the attitude of affluent, urban Indian parents towards the HPV vaccine. Methods: Well-to-do married couples with at least one daughter between 9-26 years of age were interviewed using a questionnaire in two parts. The first part was to assess their attitude to vaccination in general and their knowledge of cervical cancer; the second part was to assess their acceptance of the HPV vaccine. An educational fact sheet about cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine was administered in between the two parts. Results: Of the 522 participants, 27% of men and 24% of women agreed to vaccinate their daughters against a cancer initially. After going through the fact sheet, 74% of both men and women were in favor of vaccination. Conclusions: The HPV vaccine seems to be well accepted among this subgroup of population if appropriately educated. © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Source


Dutta S.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute
International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists | Year: 2012

Despite the high incidence of cervical cancer, population-based data on prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) are limited in India. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of any HPV type and type-specific prevalence of HPV 16/18 in women without cervical cancer. HPV viral load was measured and correlated with cytologic abnormalities of the cervix. A total of 2501 women between 25 and 65 years of age and without cervical cancer were screened by pap smear cytology. HPV DNA was detected from cervical scrapes by nested polymerase chain reaction. Detection of HPV 16/18 was carried out by polymerase chain reaction using type-specific primers and was confirmed by Southern hybridization. Viral load was determined by absolute real-time polymerase chain reaction. Population prevalence of any HPV was found to be 9.9%. The risk of HPV infection was higher in women aged 25 to 34 years (odds ratio, 1.11), in married women below 20 years of age (odds ratio, 1.80), and in women with parity ≥4 (odds ratio, 1.04). Prevalence of HPV 18 (1.4%) was greater than that of HPV 16 (0.6%) in the overall screened population. High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion cytology was more frequent in women infected with HPV 16 than in those infected with HPV 18 and other types. A gradual increase in HPV copy numbers was associated with progressive cytologic severity. In this study, HPV prevalence is comparable to HPV prevalence reported by other studies among Indian and Asian women. Although the prevalence of HPV 18 was more than that of HPV 16, type 16 infection was associated with higher oncogenicity. Source

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