Chittagong, Bangladesh

Chittagong Veterinary and Animal science University is a public university in Bangladesh. It is located at Khulshi, Chittagong. The chancellor of the university is president Zillur Rahman.The fifth Annual Scientific Conference of Chittagong Veterinary and Animal science University was held in 2007. Wikipedia.


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Islam M.Z.,Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Musekiwa A.,University of KwaZulu - Natal | Islam K.,Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Ahmed S.,Chittagong Veterinary Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: Escherichia coli O157 (EcO157) infection has been recognized as an important global public health concern. But information on the prevalence of EcO157 in cattle at the global and at the wider geographical levels is limited, if not absent. This is the first meta-analysis to investigate the point prevalence of EcO157 in cattle at the global level and to explore the factors contributing to variation in prevalence estimates. Methods: Seven electronic databases- CAB Abstracts, PubMed, Biosis Citation Index, Medline, Web of Knowledge, Scirus and Scopus were searched for relevant publications from 1980 to 2012. A random effect meta-analysis model was used to produce the pooled estimates. The potential sources of between study heterogeneity were identified using metaregression. Principal findings: A total of 140 studies consisting 220,427 cattle were included in the meta-analysis. The prevalence estimate of EcO157 in cattle at the global level was 5.68% (95% CI, 5.16-6.20). The random effects pooled prevalence estimates in Africa, Northern America, Oceania, Europe, Asia and Latin America-Caribbean were 31.20% (95% CI, 12.35-50.04), 7.35% (95% CI, 6.44-8.26), 6.85% (95% CI, 2.41-11.29), 5.15% (95% CI, 4.21-6.09), 4.69% (95% CI, 3.05-6.33) and 1.65% (95% CI, 0.77-2.53), respectively. Between studies heterogeneity was evidenced in most regions. World region (p<0.001), type of cattle (p<0.001) and to some extent, specimens (p = 0.074) as well as method of pre-enrichment (p = 0.110), were identified as factors for variation in the prevalence estimates of EcO157 in cattle. Conclusion: The prevalence of the organism seems to be higher in the African and Northern American regions. The important factors that might have influence in the estimates of EcO157 are type of cattle and kind of screening specimen. Their roles need to be determined and they should be properly handled in any survey to estimate the true prevalence of EcO157. © 2014 Islam et al.


Ahmed S.S.U.,Copenhagen University | Ahmed S.S.U.,Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Ersboll A.K.,University of Southern Denmark | Biswas P.K.,Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: The agro-ecology and poultry husbandry of the south Asian and south-east Asian countries share common features, however, with noticeable differences. Hence, the ecological determinants associated with risk of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI-H5N1) outbreaks are expected to differ between Bangladesh and e.g., Thailand and Vietnam. The primary aim of the current study was to establish ecological determinants associated with the risk of HPAI-H5N1 outbreaks at subdistrict level in Bangladesh. The secondary aim was to explore the performance of two different statistical modeling approaches for unmeasured spatially correlated variation. Methodology/Principal Findings: An ecological study at subdistrict level in Bangladesh was performed with 138 subdistricts with HPAI-H5N1 outbreaks during 2007-2008, and 326 subdistricts with no outbreaks. The association between ecological determinants and HPAI-H5N1 outbreaks was examined using a generalized linear mixed model. Spatial clustering of the ecological data was modeled using 1) an intrinsic conditional autoregressive (ICAR) model at subdistrict level considering their first order neighbors, and 2) a multilevel (ML) model with subdistricts nested within districts. Ecological determinants significantly associated with risk of HPAI-H5N1 outbreaks at subdistrict level were migratory birds' staging areas, river network, household density, literacy rate, poultry density, live bird markets, and highway network. Predictive risk maps were derived based on the resulting models. The resulting models indicate that the ML model absorbed some of the covariate effect of the ICAR model because of the neighbor structure implied in the two different models. Conclusions/Significance: The study identified a new set of ecological determinants related to river networks, migratory birds' staging areas and literacy rate in addition to already known risk factors, and clarified that the generalized concept of free grazing duck and duck-rice cultivation interacted ecology are not significant determinants for Bangladesh. These findings will refine current understanding of the HPAI-H5N1 epidemiology in Bangladesh. © 2012 Ahmed et al.


Khan M.K.I.,Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Blair H.T.,Massey University | Lopez-Villalobos N.,Massey University
Journal of Applied Animal Research | Year: 2012

This study was undertaken to compare and evaluate the parameters of 10 different mathematical models for their predictive ability in describing the lactation curves for daily milk yield of different genotypes under cooperative dairying in Bangladesh. A database consisting of 7340 herd-test records from 738 cows over the period 1999-2001 was assembled. Breed combinations included Pabna cattle, Australian-Friesian-Sahiwal×Pabna, Holstein×Pabna, Jersey×Pabna and Sahiwal×Pabna. The estimated parameters of the mathematical models, and the predicted lactation milk yields differed significantly between genotypes. The models were evaluated by four fit statistics: Akaike information criteria, coefficient of determination (R 2), root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). The AIC values indicated that the Ali model provided a good fit for all genotypes. The R 2 value suggested that the Legendre polynomial and Ali models were the best fit for all genotypes. CCC and RMSPE values indicated that the best models for all genotypes were Nelder and Wood. Since the CCC value was considered the most informative of the four fit statistics, the Nelder model was the best model to predict the full lactation profile based on test-day records for all genotypes. Using the Nelder model, the predicted 270 day milk yield of the Australian-Friesian- Sahiwal×Pabna genotype was higher (1823 kg) than the other genotypes (1509, 1650, 1531 and 1627 kg for Pabna, Australian-Friesian- Sahiwhal×Pabna, Jersey×Pabna and Sahiwal×Pabna, respectively). © 2012 Taylor and Francis.


Islam M.Z.,Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Christensen J.P.,Copenhagen University | Biswas P.K.,Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2015

We investigated faecal samples collected from the rectum of 518 cattle on 371 randomly selected smallholdings in Bangladesh for the presence of sorbitol non-fermenting (SN-F) shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). The SN-F isolates were tested for the presence of rfb O157, stx1, stx2, eae and hlyA genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Seven SN-F isolates lacking these genes were profiled by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to verify their clonality. SN-F E. coli was identified in 44 [8·5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 6·4-11·2] samples; of these, 28 (5·4%, 95% CI 3·8-7·7) had shiga toxin-producing strains, although only two carried the rfb O157 gene. Thirteen isolates carried the hlyA gene while 18 harboured the eae gene. Based on PFGE, six pulsotypes were observed among the seven isolates that had no virulence genes. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on shiga toxin-producing E. coli from direct rectal faecal samples of cattle on smallholdings. © Cambridge University Press 2014.


Ahmed S.S.U.,Copenhagen University | Ahmed S.S.U.,Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Ersboll A.K.,Copenhagen University | Biswas P.K.,Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Christensen J.P.,Copenhagen University
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2010

Bangladesh faced two epidemic waves of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in two consecutive years. The peaks of the waves were observed in February-July 2007 and January-April 2008, respectively. We examined the spatial and temporal patterns of the 293 outbreaks in 143 subdistricts in 2007 and 2008. Global clustering assessed by K-function was seen at distances 150-300 km between subdistricts. Significant local clusters were detected by space-time scan statistics. In both waves, significant primary clusters of HPAI outbreaks were identified in the central part of the country dominated by commercial production systems and in the northwestern part primarily in backyard production systems. Secondary clusters varied from the northwestern part in 2007 and the southern part in 2008. The findings are highly relevant for the successful planning and implementation of control, prevention and surveillance strategies by highlighting areas where detailed investigations should be initiated. Copyright © 2010 Cambridge University Press.


Ahmed S.S.U.,Copenhagen University | Ahmed S.S.U.,Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Ersboll A.K.,University of Southern Denmark | Biswas P.K.,Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: The number of outbreaks of HPAI-H5N1 reported by Bangladesh from 2007 through 2011 placed the country among the highest reported numbers worldwide. However, so far, the understanding of the epidemic progression, direction, intensity, persistence and risk variation of HPAI-H5N1 outbreaks over space and time in Bangladesh remains limited. Methodology/Principal Findings: To determine the magnitude and spatial pattern of the highly pathogenic avian influenza A subtype H5N1 virus outbreaks over space and time in poultry from 2007 to 2009 in Bangladesh, we applied descriptive and analytical spatial statistics. Temporal distribution of the outbreaks revealed three independent waves of outbreaks that were clustered during winter and spring. The descriptive analyses revealed that the magnitude of the second wave was the highest as compared to the first and third waves. Exploratory mapping of the infected flocks revealed that the highest intensity and magnitude of the outbreaks was systematic and persistent in an oblique line that connects south-east to north-west through the central part of the country. The line follows the Brahmaputra-Meghna river system, the junction between Central Asian and East Asian flyways, and the major poultry trading route in Bangladesh. Moreover, several important migratory bird areas were identified along the line. Geostatistical analysis revealed significant latitudinal directions of outbreak progressions that have similarity to the detected line of intensity and magnitude. Conclusion/Significance: The line of magnitude and direction indicate the necessity of mobilizing maximum resources on this line to strengthen the existing surveillance. © 2011 Ahmed et al.


Barua H.,Copenhagen University | Barua H.,Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Biswas P.K.,Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Olsen K.E.P.,Statens Serum Institute | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Contaminated poultry and poultry products are a major source of motile Salmonellae for human salmonellosis worldwide. Local circulation of any motile Salmonella serovar in poultry has a wider public health impact beyond its source of origin for being dispersed elsewhere through poultry trades or human travels. To investigate the status of motile Salmonella serovars in breeder farms in Bangladesh, multiple flocks of two breeder farms were observed for a period of six months. In addition, a cross-sectional survey was carried out to determine the prevalence and serovar distribution of motile Salmonella by randomly selecting 100 commercial broiler poultry farms. Five pooled faecal samples representing an entire housed flock of breeders or broilers were screened for presence of motile Salmonella following conventional bacteriological procedures. The Salmonella isolates obtained were subsequently serotyped, and characterized by plasmid profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The results revealed that both the breeder farms were positive with three Salmonella serovars: S. Virchow, S. Paratyphi B var Java (S. Java) and S. Enteritidis. Eleven of the 100 broiler farms investigated were positive for motile Salmonella, giving a farm-level prevalence of 11% (95% confidence interval 5-17%). S. Virchow and S. Kentucky were the two predominant serovars isolated from the broiler farms. The PFGE genotyping demonstrated that the isolates belonging to the same serovars were closely related due to variation in only 1-4 bands. All the S. Virchow and S. Java isolates, irrespective of breeder or broiler farm origin, were plasmid-free, except for one S. Virchow isolate from a broiler farm that harboured a 9.7 kb-sized plasmid. The S. Kentucky isolates belonged to three plasmid profiles having plasmids of four different sizes, ranging from 2.7 to 109 kb. This is the first report of any motile Salmonella serovars from breeder and commercial broiler poultry farms in Bangladesh. © 2013 Barua et al.


Rahman S.,Jessore University of Science and Technology | Parvin R.,Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease | Year: 2014

Medicinal plants are used in herbalism. They form the easily available source for healthcare purposes in rural and tribal areas. In the present review, an attempt has been made to congregate the phytochemical and pharmacological studies done on an important medicinal plant Aegle marmelos. Extensive experimental and clinical studies prove that Aegle marmelos possesses antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antiviral, radioprotective, anticancer, chemopreventive, antipyretic, ulcer healing, antigenotoxic, diuretic, antifertility and anti-inflammatory properties, which help it to play role in prevention and treatment of many disease. Therefore, it is worthwhile to review its therapeutic properties to give an overview of its status to scientist both modern and ancient. This review also encompasses on the potential application of the above plant in the pharmaceutical field due to its wide pharmacological activities. © 2014 Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press.


Amam Z.S.,Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Until recently, Cryptosporidium was thought to be a single species genus. Molecular studies now show that there are at least 10 valid species of this parasite. Among them, two morphologically identical species, C. hominis and C. parvum are the most pathogenic identified to date and share 97% of identical genomes. Post-genomic analyses is therefore necessary to explore further the genetic variations among them. During this study, a comparative proteomic approach was applied to analyze the differential expression of sporozoite proteins in both C. hominis and C. parvum. Using 2-DE gels with different pH ranges (3-10 and 4-7) and automated three dimensional (3D) image analyses, a total of 20 protein spots were shown to be differentially expressed between the two species. Mass spectrometry analyses of these spots identified one hypothetical protein, however, identification of the remaining spots was unsuccessful. Further characterization of this hypothetical protein along with all differentially expressed proteins could provide crucial information in understanding the differential biology of Cryptosporidium spp.


Khan M.K.I.,Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Khatun J.,Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
Indian Journal of Animal Research | Year: 2013

This study was aimed to unravel the productive and reproductive performance of Black Bengal goats under two feeding regime and fitting a growth curve function to predict the weaning weight in the semi-intensive system. The initial and subsequent live weight at bi- weekly intervals for the experimental males and females up to age at sexual maturity and then up to kidding and after kidding up to next conception was recorded. It was observed that the live weight of goats was declined after parturition from the live weight at advanced pregnant stage in both two feeding regimes and dam's weight was loosening after kidding to 30 days at a rate of 42g/day but then it was increased steadily. Similarly the adult buck was also loosening their weight when they used for serve to the doe. The kids birth weight was varied between sex. In the first few weeks, the kids live weight was increased faster than it was slower up to mature age. The kidding rate and kidding interval for both feeding regime was ranging from 1.50 to 1.62 and 220 to 243 days, respectively. The Gompertz curve function was fitted with the test day basis collected data. It was observed that the Gompertz function parameters were positive and the predicted weaning weight values were higher than the actual values. Significant differences were observed between feeding regime, but not between sexes.

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