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Jain A.,Chirayu Medical College and Hospital
Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an enzyme of purine salvage pathway and has two important isoenzymes ADA1 and ADA2. The activity of ADA has been changed in diseases characterized by altered cell-mediated immunity. It was observed that total serum ADA activity was decreased during normal pregnancy compared with non-pregnant women. However, total serum ADA activity and serum ADA2 activity was increased in hyperemesis gravidarum and pre-eclampsia in pregnant women. Less information is available regarding role of ADA in abortions (recurrent and missed) and anembryonic pregnancies. Here, we review the activity of ADA and its isoenzymes. Despite these findings, it will be interesting to know whether activity of ADA will be same if ADA is estimated throughout the pregnancy and in pregnancy related complications from early first trimester to third trimester, as all studies until now were carried out at a particular stage of pregnancy. © 2013 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted. Source

Kataria B.C.,C U Shah Medical College | Bhavsar V.H.,Chirayu Medical College and Hospital
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2012

Objective: There is a change in the regulatory environment after a system of product patents in India since 2005. The objective of this study was to analyse the trends of drug approval in India during the period of 1999 to 2011. Materials and Methods: The information about drug approvals was primarily obtained from the Indian regulatory agency website. For the drug products identified, the drugs were classified into fourteen main Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) groups, single or combination products, types of dosage form, approvals for additional strength, approvals for additional indication and approvals for new dosage form. Results: We identified 1506 approvals by the DCGI from 1999 to 2011, with a mean of 115.84±83.24 (SD) approvals per year (Median approvals per year: 79; Range: 23-264). The ATC groups containing over 10% of total approvals were N (nervous system), with 232 (15.4%); J (antiinfective for systemic use), with 204 (13.54%); A (alimentary tract and metabolism), with 192 (12.74%) and C (cardiovascular system), with 186 (12.35%). Since 2004, there is a rising trend for approval of products having drugs in combination. Total 448 new drugs were approved during the period of 1999 to 2011, with a mean of 34.46±8.14 (SD) new drug approvals per year (Median new drug approvals per year: 36; Range: 22-53). Conclusions: These results show that there is a rising trend of approval for fixed dose combinations. The pattern of 'new drug' approval was flattened around the years when patent policy change was introduced. Source

Agrawal A.,Chirayu Medical College and Hospital | Singh V.K.,Escorts Heart Institute and Research Center | Varma A.,Escorts Heart Institute and Research Center | Sharma R.,Escorts Heart Institute and Research Center
Indian Pediatrics | Year: 2012

Context: Reports of successful use of vasopressin in various shock states and cardiac arrest has lead to the emergence of vasopressin therapy as a potentially major advancement in the management of critically ill children. Objective: To provide an overview of physiology of vasopressin, rationale of its use and dose schedule in different disease states with special focus on recent advances in the therapeutic applications of vasopressin. Data Source: MEDLINE search (1966-September 2011) using terms "vasopressin", "terlipressin", "arginine-vasopressin", "shock", "septic shock", "vasodilatory shock", "cardiac arrest", and "resuscitation" for reports on vasopressin/ terlipressin use in children and manual review of article bibliographies. Search was restricted to human studies. Randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, evaluation studies, case series, and case reports on vasopressin/terlipressin use in children (preterm neonates to 21 years of age) were included. Outcome measures were analysed using following clinical questions: indication, dose and duration of vasopressin/terlipressin use, main effects especially on systemic blood pressure, catecholamine requirement, urine output, serum lactate, adverse effects, and mortality. Results: 51 reports on vasopressin (30 reports) and terlipressin (21 reports) use in pediatric population were identified. A total of 602 patients received vasopressin/terlipressin as vasopressors in various catecholamine-resistant states (septic - 176, post-cardiotomy - 136, other vasodilatory/mixed shock - 199, and cardiac arrest - 101). Commonly reported responses include rapid improvement in systemic blood pressure, decline in concurrent catecholamine requirement, and increase in urine output; despite these effects, the mortality rates remained high. Conclusion: In view of the limited clinical experience, and paucity of randomized controlled trials evaluating these drugs in pediatric population, currently no definitive recommendations on vasopressin/terlipressin use can be laid down. Nevertheless, available clinical data supports the use of vasopressin in critically ill children as a rescue therapy in refractory shock and cardiac arrest. Source

Pandey A.,Narshinbhai Patel Dental College and Hospital | Saxena K.,Chirayu Medical College and Hospital
Neurochemical Research | Year: 2014

Stroke is an emergency which threatens life and third leading cause of death and long term disability in developed countries. The use of biomarkers in diagnosing stroke and assessing prognosis is an emerging and rapidly evolving field. The study aimed to investigate the predictive value of biochemical marker of brain damage neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and systemic inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) with respect to degree of disability at the time of admission and short term in stroke patients. We investigated 120 patients with cerebrovascular stroke who were admitted within 72 h of onset of stroke in the Department of Neurology at Sri Aurobindo Institute of Medical Sciences, Indore, India. NSE and CRP were analyzed by solid enzyme linked immunosorbent assay using analyzer and micro plate reader from Biorad 680. In all patients, the neurological status was evaluated by a standardized neurological examination and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale on admission and on day 7. Serum NSE and CRP concentration were found significantly increased in acute stroke cases as compared to control in present study (<0.05 and <0.001 respectively). The maximum serum NSE and CRP levels within 72 h of admission were significantly higher in patients with greater degree of disability at the time of admission. Both biomarkers were found significantly correlated with neurological disability and short term outcome. Our study showed that serum biomarkers NSE and CRP have high predictive value for determining severity and early neurobehavioral outcome after acute stroke. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media. Source

Vishwakarma N.,Chirayu Medical College and Hospital
Nepal Medical College journal : NMCJ | Year: 2011

Teeth are well preserved after death and they exhibit remarkable sexual dimorphism. Hence, they provide excellent materials for forensic investigations intended for identification of sex. Present study was undertaken on permanent mandibular canines of 90 male and 90 female subjects of age group 17-23 years. The mesiodistal width for right and left mandibular canines and intercanine distance were measured. Subsequently, canine index was calculated for both sides. Significant sexual dimorphism was found in all parameters except intercanine distance. All the results were compared with previous studies and discussed in the light of genetic, evolutionary and metabolic reasons for sexual dimporhism. Source

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