Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe

Chinhoyi University of Technology also known as CUT was established by an Act by the Parliament of Zimbabwe on 10 December 2001. The town of Chinhoyi is in Mashonaland West about 120 km from Harare towards Lake Kariba and the Zambian border.The Chinhoyi University of Technology has grown out of the Chinhoyi Technical Teachers’ College that was founded in 1991. The first-degree programmes were offered in 1999 under the control of the University of Zimbabwe. Soon afterwards, in 2001, the institution gained full university status.Today, the university provides undergraduate courses in the fields of agriculture, engineering, and business science. Technical teacher education, and creative art and design, are offered through the university’s single institute, the Institute of Lifelong Learning. With nearly 3 000 students and an academic staff of 163, the university describes itself as ‘a small but highly selective institution’.A Strategic Management postgraduate masters programme was introduced in 2005, and ‘continues to flourish’, a claim that warrants respect when the records show that 62 masters degrees were conferred in 2008, alongside the nearly 700 undergraduate degrees. In addition, a new school is being planned, the School of Hospitality and Tourism, which as part of its academic programme will run a hotel existing on the experimental farm as a commercial venture. The university is there to serve a great purpose to the whole nation. Wikipedia.

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Siziba N.,Chinhoyi University of Technology
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2017

Increasing damming of rivers is a global challenge and many studies have highlighted the ecohydrological effects particularly on migratory fauna. However, there are fewer studies that have explored the effects of the reservoirs on the ecological condition of urban wastewater polluted rivers. Therefore, damming of polluted rivers that drain urban wastewater from the City of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe represents an opportunity to understand the effects of interactions between damming and ecological condition of the affected rivers. Data on environmental variables and macroinvertebrates were collected from twelve sites selected from three rivers: Umzingwane – a river that does not receive wastewater from the city; and Umguza and Khami – both rivers draining urban wastewater from the city. One site each on Khami and Umguza rivers were located before the city whereas the rest of the sites were either located immediately after the city but upstream or downstream of the dams. Sampled sites were assessed for similarity based on macroinvertebrate data and three clusters comprising of (i) less impacted sites, (ii) sites immediately upstream and (iii) those immediately downstream of dams were produced. The assessed environmental variables (ANOVA, p < 0.05) and macroinvertebrate community structure (ANOSIM, p < 0.05) indicated significantly deteriorated conditions at sites located immediately upstream of the dams and these variables significantly improved soon after the dams. Sites located immediately upstream of the dams were typified by poor water clarity, high nutrients, high sedimentation, dissolved oxygen deficiency, and high levels of COD and BOD plus significantly degraded macroinvertebrate communities. Except for salinity that increased downstream of dams, the present results indicate that dams on urban wastewater polluted rivers improves the ecological condition of the affected rivers. In general, this study suggest that pollutants may be retained within the dams and therefore the utilisation of water from these reservoirs for human consumption, crop and livestock production may be risky as pollutants are likely to be retained within these dams. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Jingura R.M.,Chinhoyi University of Technology | Kamusoko R.,Chinhoyi University of Technology
Waste and Biomass Valorization | Year: 2017

Abstract: Processing of Jatropha seeds to produce oil leaves press-cake (JPC) as a by-product. Based on extraction efficiency, 80–85% of seed remains as press-cake. In places where large quantities of Jatropha oil are extracted, mainly for biodiesel production, huge quantities of press-cake would be produced. JPC constitutes a substantial by-product that has multiple applications. Most papers in literature have focused on a narrow range of product streams arising from valorisation of JPC. This paper presents data on nine possible product streams of JPC valorisation. These are organic fertiliser, protein, animal feed, biocomposites, briquettes, bioethanol, biogas, pyloritic products and syngas. This makes it easier for comparative purposes as it aggregates existing data. The objective of this paper is to review empirical data available in literature on the conversion of JPC into high-value products and map the various valorisation options. The product streams can be placed into three main groups; fertiliser, energy carriers and industrial chemical products. The energy carrier group dominates with five products (briquettes, bioethanol, biogas, pyrolytic products and syngas). Conversion technologies for these products are well established. Biogas and briquettes are the most promising and have wide application. Use of JPC as fertiliser is also widely practiced. Work on production of various industrial chemicals, such as protein and biocomposites is at different stages of maturity. The paper shows a lot of work that has and is still being conducted in order to broaden the product streams of JPC valorisation. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

Hove T.,University of Zimbabwe | Manyumbu E.,Chinhoyi University of Technology | Rukweza G.,University of Zimbabwe
Renewable Energy | Year: 2014

Reliable knowledge of the spatio-temporal distribution of solar radiation is required for the informed design and deployment planning of solar energy delivery systems. In this paper an improved global solar radiation map for Zimbabwe is developed by merging ground-measured radiation data from a sparsely distributed station network, with less accurate satellite-measured data which have an almost continuous spatial coverage. Monthly clearness index values derived from ground-measured global radiation are correlated with those derived from satellite data to obtain a model for calibrating satellite-measured data at a specified grid interval. Two multiplicative factors are to then used to further correct the generated data; CFm to cater for the in-exactness of the regression fit and the other, IBCF to cater for the interpolation error. Contour maps of global solar radiation are then constructed using interpolation by the geo-statistical method of ordinary kriging. The accuracy of the maps in predicting observed (ground-measured) values was tested by evaluating error statistics; relative bias error (rBE), relative mean bias error (rMBE) and normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) in a "leave-one-out" cross-validation analysis. Results indicate that the maximum normalized root mean square error was 0.028 (about 3%), a significant improvement when compared to an earlier map, the H-G map with a normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) of 0.097. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Muboko N.,Chinhoyi University of Technology | Murindagomo F.,Zimbabwe Parks and Wildlife Management Authority
Journal for Nature Conservation | Year: 2014

This paper retraces: (1) the promulgation of protectionist wildlife policies by colonial administrators at the turn of the 19th Century in Zimbabwe, and their evolutionary trajectory over distinct time periods, (2) the paradigmatic shift and the extent of evolution of wildlife policies with respect to the devolution thrust and local community participation to date. The aim is to re-ignite and keep alive the debate for the improvement of local community livelihoods by meeting their aspirations and addressing poverty. Another section explores the robustness of local community institutional framework following decades of research on their efficacy in the face of internal weaknesses and external pressures. This is discussed in the context of contested devolution and decentralisation concepts which not in the distant past became fashionable rhetoric in the field of local community empowerment in natural resource management. Areas of contests have been explored using a case study approach. Extensive literature consultation and gleaning of 127 published and relevant sources cutting across national, regional and global realms reveal that Zimbabwe and most southern African countries have evolved progressive policies. However, consistent with most literature, the implementation of these otherwise progressive policies remains problematic. Hence, the question, 'when will community-based wildlife conservation initiatives like communal areas management programme for indigenous resources (CAMPFIRE) achieve their initially intended goals of devolution?' remains largely unaddressed. © 2014 Elsevier GmbH.

Gandiwa E.,Chinhoyi University of Technology
African Journal of Ecology | Year: 2014

Understanding factors influencing large herbivore densities and distribution in terrestrial ecosystems is a fundamental goal of ecology. This study examined environmental factors influencing the density and distribution of wild large herbivores in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe. Vegetation and surface water were predicted to have a stronger influence than anthropogenic-related disturbances (livestock grazing, fires, settlements and poaching) on the density and distribution of wild large herbivores. Aerial survey data for seven common wild large herbivores conducted in 2007 and 2009 and environmental data were collected. Only grass cover explained a significant proportion of the variation in large herbivore densities and distribution. Moreover, only two species densities significantly differed across the Gonarezhou, namely impala and zebra. In contrast, buffalo, elephant, giraffe, kudu and nyala densities did not differ significantly across the Gonarezhou. Overall, the findings only partly support the study prediction. The study results suggest the need to further investigate the roles of environmental factors at smaller scales in order to tease out their relative strengths in influencing density and distribution of large herbivores. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Jingura R.M.,Chinhoyi University of Technology | Matengaifa R.,Chinhoyi University of Technology | Musademba D.,Chinhoyi University of Technology | Musiyiwa K.,Chinhoyi University of Technology
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2011

There is increasing interest in Zimbabwe in developing a biofuels industry based on the production of biodiesel using Jatropha as the main feedstock. This has led to the introduction of Jatropha as a commercial energy crop in the country. There are plans to grow 1220 km2 of Jatropha which will supply about 365,000 t of seed. This will provide about 110 dam3 of biodiesel required to achieve a blending level of 10% with petro-diesel. The availability and suitability of land for the production of Jatropha cannot be taken for granted, particularly given the fact that the concept and practice of production of feedstocks for biofuels remain contested on the threat they pose to food security. Determining the land that is potentially available for biofuels is a non-trivial task. A multiplicity of factors needs to be considered. It is important to determine the spatial extent of areas with suitable growth conditions for Jatropha. The interaction of soil type and land use is an important interface in agriculture. Added to this is the need to balance food, fodder and fuel supply in land use planning. This paper attempts to assess the availability and suitability of various land types as well as agro-ecological conditions for the production of Jatropha in Zimbabwe. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

The application of diatom indices developed for organically enriched and eutrophic waters in oligotrophic and relatively pristine streams in the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe was investigated based on data collected in May-August 2007. Better suitability of diatom indices in investigating the quality of eutrophic, organically enriched waters compared to oligotrophic waters is demonstrated. More robust data sets on taxonomy and autecology of a great number of diatom species are required to make the indices more powerful tools in monitoring water quality and ecological integrity of streams in the region. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Jingura R.M.,Chinhoyi University of Technology
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2011

Biofuels are being promoted as sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels both from energy supply perspective as well as a technical option to respond to climate change. Various crops are grown throughout the world to supply feedstocks for the production of biofuels. In sub-Saharan Africa, Jatropha curcas is considered to be the most suitable feedstock for production of biodiesel. Zimbabwe is a tropical country with suitable growth conditions for Jatropha. Since 2005, the production of Jatropha has gathered momentum in the country. The plan for production of Jatropha has concentrated on boosting production areas. Not much attention has been given to technical issues that are important in optimizing the yield and quality norms of Jatropha seed. This paper discusses technical interventions at two levels of the value chain that are required to optimize production of Jatropha in the country as a commercially viable energy crop. Emphasis is placed on the need to supply elite planting materials to optimize seed yield and seed quality as well as consider suitable agro-techniques required to establish the Jatropha plantations. Given that the longevity of Jatropha trees is 50 years, the objective is to establish plantations based on improved germplasm rather than rely on wild type germplasm. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Manyumbu E.,Chinhoyi University of Technology
ECOS 2015 - 28th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems | Year: 2015

Solar radiant energy conversion to useful work or electricity is gaining momentum as there are continued efforts towards sustainable energy supplies. The laws of thermodynamics govern the processes of energy transformation to produce work. Exergy represents the maximum work that can be extracted from a system interacting with a specific environment. While there are a number of solar radiation exergy models suggested in literature, there is yet to be a universally accepted one. Solar exergy is sometimes taken to be the global radiation incident to a collector multiplied by the product of transmittance and absorptance. Such proposition ignores the basic principle of exergy as put forward in the Carnot efficiency principle for maximum efficiency of a system. Some formulations apply the temperature of the Sun on the Carnot heat engine efficiency, this ignores the fact that radiation reaching the earth's surface has been diminished, hence the assumption of a Carnot heat engine operating between the Sun's temperature and the environment is imprecise. Other proposed models appear too hypothetical and therefore phyiscally incoherent. The lack of a common exergy model leads to inconsistence when it comes to exergetic appraisal of energy systems.This paper is an effort to present a model that attempts to apply simple thermodynamic principles in coming up with what can be considered more realistic. Terrestrial radiation exchange with a blackbody receiver coupled to a Carnot heat engine is hereby proposed. From the present theoretical analysis, it is noted that the obtained exergy values are within the expected order of magnitudes. The proposed model compare closely with Petela's model if in Petela's model the characteristic or effective temperature of the incident radiation is applied instead of the Sun's temperature. Maximum exergy efficiency of 87.64% from a correlation obtained through curve fitting compares well with 86.8% reported as the maximum photoelectric solar energy conversion.

Gandiwa E.,Wageningen University | Gandiwa E.,Chinhoyi University of Technology
Tropical Conservation Science | Year: 2013

The question whether animal populations are top-down and/or bottom-up controlled has motivated a thriving body of research over the past five decades. In this review I address two questions: 1) how do top-down and bottom-up controls influence large herbivore populations? 2) How do human activities and control systems influence the top-down and bottom-up processes that affect large herbivore population dynamics? Previous studies suggest that the relative influence of top-down vs. bottom-up control varies among ecosystems at the global level, with abrupt shifts in control possible in arid and semi-arid regions during years with large differences in rainfall. Humans as super-predators exert top-down control on large wild herbivore abundances through hunting. However, through fires and livestock grazing, humans also exert bottom-up controls on large wild herbivore abundances through altering resource availability, which influences secondary productivity. This review suggests a need for further research, especially on the human-induced top-down and bottom-up control of animal populations in different terrestrial ecosystems.

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