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Qin Z.-M.,Beijing Technology and Business University | Qin Z.-M.,China Shenhua Energy Company | Dong L.-M.,Beijing Technology and Business University | Liu P.,Chinese Society for Environmental science | Zhou L.-T.,Beijing Technology and Business University
Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue/China Environmental Science | Year: 2014

The removal of Cr6+ from water using nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) prepared with the liquid phase reduction method was investigated. Results showed that removal rate of Cr6+ observed from nZVI was much higher than those from iron powder and activated carbon. Lower pH and initial Cr6+ concentration, more fresh nZVI and dosage were favorable of removal of Cr6+ in water, and the best removal rate was nearly 100%. The fitting results of reaction dynamics indicated that Cr6+ removal by nZVI was well consonant with pseudo second-order model. Cr element with 12.02% (wt) concentration was detected on the post-reaction nZVI particle surface by SEM and EDS. The analysis of Cr6+ and Cr3+ concentration in reaction solution of adsorption, suggested that reduction and co-precipitation should be the mainl mechanism of the Cr6+ removal from water using nZVI. ©, 2014, Chinese Society for Environmental Sciences. All right reserved.


Wang N.,Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences | Wang N.,Key Laboratory of Pesticide Environmental Assessment and Pollution Control | Guo X.,Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences | Guo X.,Key Laboratory of Pesticide Environmental Assessment and Pollution Control | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

The pollution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in livestock farms is a problem which need to be paid more attention to, due to the severe resistance dissemination and the further human health risk. In this study, all the relevant exposure matrices (manure, soil and water) of sixteen animal farms in Southeastern China were sampled to determine twenty-two ARGs conferring resistance to five major classes of antibiotics including tetracyclines, sulfonamides, quinolones, aminoglycosides, and macrolides. The results showed that the spread property of sul genes was most extensive and strong, followed by tet and erm genes. The abundance of tet genes expressing ribosomal protection proteins (tetM, tetO, tetQ, tetT and tetW) was higher than that expressing efflux pump proteins (tetA, tetC, tetE and tetG) in each type of samples. The high abundance and frequency of ermB gene in the matrices should be paid more attention, because macrolides is a major medicine for human use. For manures, it was found that the similar ARGs distribution rules were existing in poultry manure or porcine manure samples, despite of the different origins of these two types of livestock farms. Meanwhile, it was interesting that the distribution rule of tet genes in animal manure was nearly the same as all the ARGs. For soils, the result of nonmetric multi-dimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the pollution of ARGs in the soils fertilized by poultry and cattle manures were more substantial in northern Jiangsu, but no significant ARGs diversity was observed among porcine manured soils of five different regions. Furthermore, most ARGs showed significant positive relationships with environmental variables such as concentration of sulfonamides, tetracyclines, Cu, Zn and total organic carbon (TOC). The pollution profile and characteristics of so many ARGs in livestock farms can provide significative foundation for the regulation and legislation of antibiotics in China. © 2016 Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Wang B.-B.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Duan X.-L.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Liu P.,Tsinghua University | Huang N.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue/China Environmental Science | Year: 2012

60 coke oven workers (F/M=2:1, age: 40~50) from Taiyuan, Shanxi province were recruited and their urine samples were collected before and after 8h work in heating (December 2009) and non-heating season (September 2009), respectively, with 60 farmer as control group. Informations on their age, gender, and others were gathered by a unified questionnaire. Concentration levels of 6OH-PAHs in urine samples were determined by enzymatic hydrolysis-high-performance liquid chromatography. The average concentration of 2-hydroxynaphthalene (2-OHNap), 2-hydroxyfluorene (2-OHFlu), 3-hydryxyphenanthrene (3-OHPhe), 9-hydryxyphenanthrene (9-OHPhe), 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPy) and 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene (3-OHBaP) were 19.83, 5.63, 2.05, 1.75, 1.67 and 0.23 μmol/mol creatinine in coke oven workers. The trend of OH-PAHs concentration level was in order of 2-OHNap> 2-OHFlu> ∑-OHPhe (3-OHPhe +9-OHPhe)> 1-OHPy> 3-OHBap; the levels of men were higher than that of women, and the levels in heating period were higher than that in non-heating period. Concentrations trend of urinary OH-PAHs level was top side workers> side oven workers > bottom side workers > control group, which was adjust for external exposure categories. Concentrations of OH-PAHs after 8 hours work were higher than the levels before work, and 3-OHBap had the most greatly increase by 55%. The results show that there was a proportional relationship between urinary concentrations of OH-PAHs and external exposure levels of coke oven workers. Therefore, further research of the relationship between external and internal exposure levels of coke oven workers is recommended.


Robbins W.A.,University of California at Los Angeles | Xun L.,University of California at Los Angeles | Jia J.,University of California at Los Angeles | Kennedy N.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 2 more authors.
Reproductive Toxicology | Year: 2010

Boron found as borates in soil, food, and water has important industrial and medical applications. A panel reviewing NTP reproductive toxicants identified boric acid as high priority for occupational studies to determine safe versus adverse reproductive effects. To address this, we collected boron exposure/dose measures in workplace inhalable dust, dietary food/fluids, blood, semen, and urine from boron workers and two comparison worker groups (n=192) over three months and determined correlations between boron and semen parameters (total sperm count, sperm concentration, motility, morphology, DNA breakage, apoptosis and aneuploidy). Blood boron averaged 499.2. ppb for boron workers, 96.1 and 47.9. ppb for workers from high and low environmental boron areas (p<0.0001). Boron concentrated in seminal fluid. No significant correlations were found between blood or urine boron and adverse semen parameters. Exposures did not reach those causing adverse effects published in animal toxicology work but exceeded those previously published for boron occupational groups. © 2009 Elsevier Inc.


Zou T.-S.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Zhang J.-L.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Chen Y.,Chinese Society For Environmental science | Wang M.-X.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue/China Environmental Science | Year: 2015

To describe the characteristics for the content and the distribution of atmospheric lead in urban China, the articles on atmospheric heavy metal contents in Chinese cities publicated from 2000 to 2012 were searched and collected through the search engines of CNKI, Wanfang, CQVIP, Science Direct, Google Scholar and PubMed etc. Based on the uniform criteria, 69 articles were selected for the further analysis. The atmospheric lead contents were reported in 42 cities of 30 provinces and included more than 5, 489 samples. Atmospheric lead concentrations were expressed by the lead concentrations in PM10. The lead concentrations by those in PM2.5 and in TSP were transferred, including the limits of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS). The weighted mean of atmospheric lead level in urban China was (256.5±192.0) ng/m3. The atmospheric lead levels in 18cities (42.9%) were higher than 272.5 ng/m3, the limits of NAAQS (GB3095-2012) in PM10, and the average was (551.0±350.3) ng/m3. The levels of lead in Changsha in Hunan province, Shaoguan in Guangdong province, Shengyang in Liaoning province, Yongxiu in Jiangxi province, Xi'an in Shanxi province and Hulu island in Liaoning province were 554.4, 637.0, 638.8, 764.1, 1018.6 and 1721.2 ng/m3, respectively, these were higher than the seasonal limit of NAAQS (545.0 ng/m3). The results also showed that levels of atmospheric lead in developed regions, such as Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan economic zone, Circum-Bohai-Sea region and Pearl River Delta, were higher than those in other regions. The atmospheric lead contents in winter-spring were 1.2~1.9 times as high as those in autumn-fall in north cities in China, while there were no significant differences in southeast coastal cities. It was showed that lead contents decreased remarkably in Guangzhou, Shanghai, Beijing and Chengdu since 2003. These results suggested that the atmospheric lead contents in urban China were much higher that those in developed countries, although the levels of lead showed the decreased trend. ©, 2015, Chinese Society for Environmental Sciences. All right reserved.


Ye C.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Li C.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Wu L.,Chinese Society for Environmental science | Yang W.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences
Research of Environmental Sciences | Year: 2015

The lake littoral zone, as a kind of ecotone between terrestrial and lake water, is an important transitional zone between lake aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The degradation of lake littoral zones accords with the basic laws of ecological degradation. According to the features of ecological degradation of lake littoral zones, the degradation process can be classified by the following five types: gradual degradation, intermittent degradation, leap degradation, sudden degradation and complex degradation. The impacts of human beings on lake littoral zones are greatly related to the development progress of human civilization. As human beings' ability to develop and utilize nature enhanced, the impact of human activities on littoral zone degradation became more and more significant. In the initial stage of civilization, human beings passively adapted to the lake littoral zone and utilized it competitively; in the growth stage of civilization, humans began to take the initiative to develop the lake littoral zone and utilized it with control; in the mature stage of civilization, human development and utilization of lake littoral zone has turned to a way of “harmonious development between humans and lake”. On the other hand, the influences of lake littoral zone degradation on human beings are mainly reflected in the following aspects: biological resources shrinking, flood damage increasing, fresh water resources declining, threats to human health, aesthetic value loss and affects on the historic inheritance of water culture. Studying the relationship between the degradation process of lake littoral zones and human activities, understanding the development law of lake littoral zones and identifying the driving factors for the degradation of lake littoral zones will be helpful for protecting and restoring lake littoral zones and for putting forward some measures against its degradation process. ©, 2015, Editorial department of Molecular Catalysis. All right reserved.


Luan Z.-Q.,Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Defense | Wang X.-Q.,Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Defense | Zheng Y.-N.,Chinese Society for Environmental science | Liu P.,Chinese Society for Environmental science
Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science | Year: 2011

Due to the well-developed managing system including policies, laws, regulations and emission standards, now the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is strictly controlled in Taiwai. The policy frameworks of VOCs control including both command control and economic incentives makes an excellent effect for VOCs treatment.


Liu P.,Chinese Society for Environmental science | Shao S.-Y.,Chinese Society for Environmental science | Wang R.,Chinese Society for Environmental science | Yi B.,Chinese Society for Environmental science
Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue/China Environmental Science | Year: 2014

At present, environmental technology assessment system dominated by the government has been unable to meet the different needs of environmental technology innovation under the new situation, in order to adapt to the rapid development of China's environmental technology and environmental protection requirements, the urgent need to establish an effective environmental technology assessment system. Based on the comparative study of the environmental technology verification (ETV) system in Canada, American etc., the international equivalent with the national conditions of China Environmental Technology Verification evaluation procedures and test parameters of the system was put forward, the basic process is divided into the verification, validation, verification and test application for verification, validation, evaluation results released in 5 stages, the design principle and method of testing parameters, test cycle, the sampling frequency was studied. And the water earthworm in situ digestion sludge technology as an example of application, the environmental protection effects of the technology, the environmental impact and important performance from the point of view of other environmental point of view was tested and analyzed. The results showed, the environmental effect parameters, maintenance management and evaluation parameters the operation parameters, the real performance can be objectively and effectively reflect the processing technology. ETV procedures and methods to establish an important complement and innovation of existing environmental protection science and technology evaluation system.


Chen Y.,South China University of Technology | Ye D.-Q.,South China University of Technology | Liu X.-Z.,South China University of Technology | Wu J.-L.,South China University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue/China Environmental Science | Year: 2012

VOCs emissions from industrial sources in China were calculated using the emission factor method based on the concept of source-tracing. Industrial VOCs emissions mainly generated from four links: production of VOCs, storage and transport, industrial processes using VOCs as raw materials and use of VOCs-containing products. Industrial VOCs emission in China was 12.06 million tons in 2009, with four above links contributing 18.1%, 6.8%, 24.7% and 50.3% of VOCs, respectively. Seventeen emission sources including synthetic material production, petroleum refining and petrochemical, machinery and equipment manufacturing generated more than 20×10 4t VOCs per year, accounting for 94.9% of total emissions. The amount of VOCs emissions in 2007, 2008 and 2009 were 10.23, 10.79 and 12.06 million tons respectively, increasing with an annual average rate of 8.6%.


Wang J.,Central South University | Wu H.,Central South University | Xue S.,Central South University | Wu X.,Central South University | Liu P.,Chinese Society for Environmental science
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2014

Manganese (Mn), a typical heavy metal pollutant, is an essential trace element found in various concentrations in all tissues. Manganese is known to be taken up by soil, water, and plants. Mn-contaminated soils and waters are becoming an environmental concern following increased awareness of the need for environmental protection. Soil Mn in particular accumulates easily and cannot be removed naturally in great quantities. Plants exposed to excess Mn often suffer from Mn poisoning, which has many negative effects. In general, excess heavy metal concentrations can induce specific damage to the ultrastructure of plant cells; such damage is expressed primarily as abnormal changes to cell components including the Golgi body, endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus, chloroplast, mitochondria, vacuole, and plasma membrane. Moreover, the extent of damage imparted to cell ultrastructure by heavy metal toxicity increases with both exposure time and heavy metal concentration. Polygonum perfoliatum L. is a Mn-tolerant plant that can grow on abandoned Mn tailings. Accordingly, it is thought to be promising for the revegetation of land formed from such tailings. Following hydroponic experiments in a greenhouse environment, transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (TEM-EDS) was used to investigate changes in the ultrastructure of root, stem, and leaf cells of P. perfoliatum and to study variations in the form of Mn in leaf cells under various Mn concentrations (5, 1000, and 10000 μmol/L). The results demonstrate the following. (1) For an Mn concentration of 5 μmol/ L, the ultrastructure of P. perfoliatum was clearly visible, without any obvious damage. The structures of the root, stem, and leaf cells of P. perfoliatum remained intact, with clearly visible and seemingly undamaged organelles, when the Mn concentration was increased to 1000 μmol/ L. (2) Organelles were still present at Mn concentrations greater than 1000 μmol/L. However, the number of mitochondria in the root cells decreased, the double-membrane system and cristae of mitochondria became dim, and the chloroplasts in stem cells began to exhibit signs of damage. Moreover, evidence of damage began to appear in chloroplast membrane structures of leaf cells, where the lamellar structure of grana was poorly developed and the number of osmiophilic granules decreased significantly. Although the chloroplasts and chloroplast membrane structures of P. perfoliatum had significant changes under heavy Mn stress, this species could still survive and grow. All these suggested that P. perfoliatum had an extraordinary tolerance to Mn. (3) Black agglomerations were observed in the cells after treatment with Mn concentrations of 1000 μmol/ L or 10000 μmol/L for 30 days, with more agglomerations observed at higher Mn concentrations. Such features were not noted in the control experiments. For an Mn concentration of 10000 μmol/ L, Mn existed as a solid acicular substance within leaf cells and intercellular spaces, possibly indicating a mechanism employed by P. perfoliatum to allow accumulation of Mn while avoiding poisoning. The present study has furthered understanding of the Mn tolerance mechanisms of plants and laid a scientific foundation for adopting tolerant plants for use in the revegetation of polluted soil over large areas. Thus, the results offer promise for further developments in the ecological restoration of Mn tailings wasteland.

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