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Fenghua, China

Ge K.,Chinese Nutrition Society
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2011

China promulgated her first food based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) in 1989. It was proposed by the standing board of Chinese Nutrition Society. The guidelines consisted of 8 items, each followed by a paragraph of explanation words. The second FBDGs came out in 1997, was expanded to include 3 parts i.e. guide lines for general population, for 7 particular population groups (infants, toddlers and preschool children, school-age children, adolescents, pregnant women, lactating mothers and the aged) and a newly formed food guide pagoda (FGP). The last version of the Chinese FBDGs was compelled by Chinese Nutrition Society in 2007, and proclaimed by the Ministry of Health in early 2008. The new guidelines kept the skeleton of three parts, but expanded remarkably in volume and coverage. The guidelines for the general population consisted of 10 items, each containing: core information, a discussion and reference materials. The guidelines for particular groups contained more subgroups, and more detailed recommendations. The revised pagoda kept the previous food grouping and placement but altered the amount of some food groups. An image of a walker and a cup of water were added to the side of the pagoda. Guidelines-2007 called for more coarse grains and less cooking oil consumption. Physical activity is also strongly recommended. Source

Wang H.J.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety | Wang Z.H.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety | Zhang J.G.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety | Du W.W.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2014

Background/Objectives:To analyze the time trends in total dietary fiber (DF) intake, DF food sources and total DF intake per 1000 kcal (DF density) in Chinese adults aged 45 years and above in the past 20 years.Subjects/Methods:We used the data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) collected in 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011. Adults who were aged 45 years and above were included in each round. Water-insoluble DF intake was calculated by substituting the water-insoluble DF content of each food in the Chinese Food Composition Table (FCT) for food intake. Total DF was calculated according to the convert index, which indicates the ratio between total DF and water-insoluble DF for each food group.Results:The mean daily total DF intake in males was 19.5 g/day in 1991 and 19.4 g/day in 2011. In females, it was 17.5 g/day in 1991 and 17.6 g/day in 2011. DF density increased in both males and females from 2004 to 2011. It was 9.0 g/1000 kcal in males and 9.5 g/1000 kcal in females in 2011. The major food sources of water-insoluble DF were cereals and vegetables. Communities with different levels of urbanization showed different trends in total DF intake: decreased consumption (2.9 g) in residents of low-urbanization communites and increased consumption (3.1 g) in those of high-urbanization communities.Conclusion:The average total DF intake in Chinese adults aged 45 years and above remained at a stable level. DF density increased because of slight decrease in energy intake. More public health messages should be disseminated, especially to the residents of low-urbanization communities, so as to increase their daily DF intake to a level close to the recommended DF intake. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Zhang J.G.,National Institute for Nutrition and Health | Wang Z.H.,National Institute for Nutrition and Health | Wang H.J.,National Institute for Nutrition and Health | Du W.W.,National Institute for Nutrition and Health | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2015

Background/Objectives: Dietary patterns represent the combined effects of foods and efficaciously illustrate the impact of diet on health outcomes. This study identified the dietary patterns and determined their relationships with obesity among young Chinese women. Subjects/Methods: In 2011, the China Health and Nutrition Survey included 2363 young women aged 18-44 years. Factor analysis of data from three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls identified the dietary patterns. Weight, height and waist circumstance (WC) were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. General obesity was defined as BMI ≥28 kg/m 2 and abdominal obesity as WC ≥85 cm. Results: Four dietary patterns were identified: traditional south; traditional north; snack; and high protein. After adjusting for confounders and energy intake, women in the highest-score quintiles of the traditional south pattern were less likely to have general obesity (odds ratio (OR)=0.48; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.29-0.78) and abdominal obesity (OR=0.64; 95% CI 0.46-0.90). Subjects in the highest-score quintiles of the traditional north pattern had significantly greater risk of general obesity (OR=2.28; 95% CI 1.38-3.74) and of abdominal obesity (OR=2.32; 95% CI 1.66-3.24).Conclusion:The traditional south pattern of rice as the major staple food with pork and vegetable dishes is associated with lower risk of general and abdominal obesity. The traditional north pattern of high intake of wheat, other cereals and tubers is positively associated with general and abdominal obesity. This provides important information for interventions and policies addressing obesity prevention among young Chinese women. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

Du W.,National Institute for Nutrition and Health | Wang H.,National Institute for Nutrition and Health | Chen S.,Treerly Womens Nutrition and Health Institute | Su C.,National Institute for Nutrition and Health | And 2 more authors.
Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVE: To investigate trend of dietary nutrient intake among adult females in China.METHODS: The changes of dietary energy and major nutrient intake among females aged 25 to 55 years in 9 provinces were analyzed by using the data from Chinese Health and Nutrition Survey, 2000-2011 (CHNS) and indicators of Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) 2013.RESULTS: During the past decade, the proportion of females with the intake of energy and protein meeting the requirement of recommendation decreased, while the proportion of females with low carbohydrate (< 50% energy) and high fat (> 30% energy) intakes increased. Meanwhile, the vitamin and mineral intakes among the females were also unsatisfactory, only small proportion of the females met the requirement for micronutrient intake, and this proportion continued to decline. In 2011, the proportion of the females who met the requirements for energy and protein intakes were 43.0% and 54.4%, respectively; the proportion of the females with low carbohydrate and high fat intakes were 40.2% and 63.8%, respectively; the proportion of females who met the requirements for vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C and vitamin E intakes were 25.2%, 10.7%, 6.9%, 54.9%, 24.3% and 88.5% respectively and the proportion of females who met the requirements for calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc and selenium intakes were 3.3%, 23.6%, 50.9%, 75.7% and 13.3% respectively.CONCLUSION: Further nutritional education and intervention is needed to improve nutrition status among Chinese females. Source

Zhai F.Y.,Chinese Nutrition Society | Du S.F.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Wang Z.H.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety | Zhang J.G.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety | And 2 more authors.
Obesity Reviews | Year: 2014

Summary: China's food consumption patterns and eating and cooking behaviours changed dramatically between 1991 and 2011. Macronutrient composition has shifted towards fats, and protein and sodium intakes remain high and potassium intake low. The rapid decline in intake of coarse grains and, later, of refined grains and increases in intake of edible oils and animal-source foods accompanied by major eating and cooking behaviour shifts are leading to what might be characterized as an unhealthy Western type of diet, often based on traditional recipes with major additions and changes. The most popular animal-source food is pork, and consumption of poultry and eggs is increasing. The changes in cooking and eating styles include a decrease in the proportion of food steamed, baked, or boiled, and an increase in snacking and eating away from home. Prior to the last decade, there was essentially no snacking in China except for hot water or green tea. Most recently, the intake of foods high in added sugar has increased. The dietary shifts are affected greatly by the country's urbanization. The future, as exemplified by the diet of the three mega cities, promises major growth in consumption of processed foods and beverages. © 2014 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity. Source

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