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Liu Y.,Jimei University | Zhang D.,China Agricultural University | Wu Y.,Jimei University | Wang D.,China Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition | Year: 2014

Numerous studies have shown that anthocyanins usually have better in vitro bioactivity than in vivo bioactivity. This may be due to physiochemical degradation during gastrointestinal digestion and their poor bioavailability in in vivo studies. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effects of anthocyanin structure on their stability under simulated gastrointestinal digestion and to assess their absorption in the intestines using Caco-2 human intestinal cell monolayers. The results show that gastric digestion does not significant affect blueberry anthocyanins in terms of composition and antioxidative activity. However, approximately 42% of the total anthocyanin and 29% of the antioxidative activity were lost during intestinal digestion. Structural analysis indicated that fewer free hydroxyl groups and more methoxy groups in the B-ring improve anthocyanin stability. The absorption trials demonstrated that more hydrophobic anthocyanins have better absorption efficiency than more hydrophilic anthocyanins. Furthermore, the glycoside structure also determines the absorption efficiency of anthocyanins. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Zhang D.,China Agricultural University | Xie L.,China Agricultural University | Wei Y.,Chinese National Research Institute of Food and Fermentation Industries | Liu Y.,Jimei University | And 3 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

The existing cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays always use chemical stressors [e.g. 2,20-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)] to initiate oxidative stress (OS), which is not accordance with the pathology of OS-related diseases. In contrast to previous cell models, an oleic acid (OA)-induced OS model of the HepG2 cells was developed in the current work. The antioxidant activities (AAs) of the 16 flavonoid standards in the CAAOA assay were significantly different from the results of the CAAAAPH and peroxyl radical-scavenging assays (PRSA). The AAs of these flavonoids in the PRSA were significantly associated with those of the CAAAAPH assay (r = 0.848, P < 0.01). On the other hand, isoflavones and epicatechin could significantly attenuate the OS in the CAAOA assay. However, the three flavonoids had no quantifiable AA in CAAAAPH and PRSA. The aforementioned results suggest that the CAAOA assay can probably better reflect the AAs of samples in biological systems. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Zhang D.,China Agricultural University | Liu Y.,Jimei University | Chu L.,All China Federation of Supply and Marketing Co operatives | Wei Y.,Chinese National Research Institute of Food and Fermentation Industries | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Physical Chemistry A | Year: 2013

Various radical-scavenging activities (RSA) assessment assays are based on discrete mechanisms and on using different radical sources. Few studies have analyzed the structural significance of flavonoids in their peroxyl radical activities in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. In this study, the RSA of 13 flavonoids in two ORAC assays with different probes (fluorescein and pyrogallol red) were investigated. Neither O-H bond dissociation enthalpy nor ionization potential values of flavonoids correlated with ORAC values. The proton affinity (PA) and electron transfer enthalpy (ETE) values, which were obtained via the sequential proton-loss electron-transfer mechanism, were significantly associated with the ORACpyrogallol Red and ORACfluorescein assays, respectively. Thus, PA represented the kinetic aspect of RSA, whereas ETE reflected the RSA extent. The PA values and the most acidic sites of flavonoids were affected by intramolecular electronic interactions, H-bonding, 3-hydroxyl group in the C ring, and conjugation systems. The stability of the deprotonated flavonoid determined the ETE value. Apart from the PA and ETE values in the first oxidation step of flavonoids, the PA and ETE values in the second oxidation step also affected the ORAC values of flavonoids. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source


Hou Z.,China Agricultural University | Hou Z.,Chinese National Research Institute of Food and Fermentation Industries | Liu Y.,China Agricultural University | Lei F.,China Agricultural University | Gao Y.,China Agricultural University
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Carotenoids may provide a variety of health benefits, however the mechanisms governing their intestinal adsorption are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to identify and evaluate the main factors affecting the release properties of β-carotene in emulsions during the in vitro digestion. Whey protein isolate, Soybean soluble polysaccharides and decaglycerolmonolaurate were used to prepare β-carotene emulsions. The effects of bile extracts, pancreatin, lipase and emulsifiers on the micellarization rate of β-carotene were evaluated and the results demonstrated that bile extracts and pancreatin had a synergistic effect on β-carotene micellarization rate. The maximum amount of potentially bioavailable β-carotene was obtained when the concentration of bile extract and pancreatin was 10 mg/mL and 2.4 mg/mL, respectively. The type of emulsifiers had a significant influence on the release properties of β-carotene in emulsions (p < 0.01). The micellarization rate of β-carotene in emulsions stabilized by Whey protein isolate, decaglycerolmonolaurate and Soybean soluble polysaccharides was 34.0%, 24.1% and 21.8%, respectively. Generally, the Whey protein isolate stabilized emulsion showed the highest release rate in the simulated digestive tract, and the major release of β-carotene occurred in simulated intestine in all emulsions. These findings were significantly important for the design of food delivery systems for increasing carotenoids bioavailability. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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