Holmes E.C.,University of Sydney |
Holmes E.C.,Chinese National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention |
Zhang Y.-Z.,University of Sydney
Current Opinion in Virology | Year: 2015
Hantaviruses are a major class of zoonotic pathogens and cause a variety of severe diseases in humans. For most of the last 50 years rodents have been considered to be the primary hosts of hantaviruses, with hantavirus evolution thought to reflect a process of virus-rodent co-divergence over a time-scale of millions of years, with occasional spill-over into humans. However, recent discoveries have revealed that hantaviruses infect a more diverse range of mammalian hosts, particularly Chiroptera (bats) and Soricomorpha (moles and shrews), and that cross-species transmission at multiple scales has played an important role in hantavirus evolution. As a consequence, the evolution and emergence of hantaviruses is more complex than previously anticipated, and may serve as a realistic model for other viral groups. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Bai L.,Chinese National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention |
Morton L.C.,University of South Florida |
Liu Q.,Chinese National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention |
Liu Q.,Shandong University
Globalization and Health | Year: 2013
China has experienced noticeable changes in climate over the past 100 years and the potential impact climate change has on transmission of mosquito-borne infectious diseases poses a risk to Chinese populations. The aims of this paper are to summarize what is known about the impact of climate change on the incidence and prevalence of malaria, dengue fever and Japanese encephalitis in China and to provide important information and direction for adaptation policy making. Fifty-five papers met the inclusion criteria for this study. Examination of these studies indicates that variability in temperature, precipitation, wind, and extreme weather events is linked to transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in some regions of China. However, study findings are inconsistent across geographical locations and this requires strengthening current evidence for timely development of adaptive options. After synthesis of available information we make several key adaptation recommendations including: improving current surveillance and monitoring systems; concentrating adaptation strategies and policies on vulnerable communities; strengthening adaptive capacity of public health systems; developing multidisciplinary approaches sustained by an new mechanism of inter-sectional coordination; and increasing awareness and mobilization of the general public. © 2013 Bai et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Zhang Y.Z.,Chinese National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention
Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi | Year: 2011
From April to July in 2009 and 2010, unexplained severe hemorrhagic fever-like illnesses occurred in farmers from the Huaiyangshan mountains range. Clinical specimens (blood, urine, feces, and throat swabs) from suspected patients were obtained and stored. Mosquitoes and ticks in affected regions were collected. Virus was isolated from 2 patients and characterized by whole genome sequencing. Virus detection in additional patients and arthropods was done by virus-specific reverse transcription (RT) PCR. Clinical and epidemiological data of RT-PCR confirmed patients were analyzed. An unknown virus was isolated from blood of two patients and from Haemaphysalis ticks collected from dogs. Whole genome sequence analysis identified the virus as a novel member of the family Bunyaviridae, most closely related to the viruses of the genus Phlebovirus within which it forms a separate lineage. Subsequently, infection was confirmed by RT-PCR in 33 of 58 suspected patients. The illness in these patients was characterized by fever, severe malaise, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Prominent laboratory findings included low white cell- and platelet counts, coagulation disturbances, and elevation of liver enzymes. Hemorrhagic complications were observed in 3 cases, 5 (15%) patients died. A novel tick-borne Bunyavirus causing life-threatening hemorrhagic fever in humans has emerged in the Huaiyangshan mountain areas of China. Further studies are needed to determine the epidemiology, geographic distribution and vertebrate animal ecology of this virus.
Wang X.,Chinese National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention
PloS one | Year: 2012
The predominant bioserotypes of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in China are 2/O: 9 and 3/O: 3; no pathogenic O: 8 strains have been found to date. Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis (MLVA) based on seven loci was able to distinguish 104 genotypes among 218 pathogenic Y. enterocolitica isolates in China and from abroad, showing a high resolution. The major pathogenic serogroups in China, O: 3 and O: 9, were divided into two clusters based on MLVA genotyping. The different distribution of Y. enterocolitica MLVA genotypes maybe due to the recent dissemination of specific clones of 2/O: 9 and 3/O: 3 strains in China. MLVA was a helpful tool for bacterial pathogen surveillance and investigation of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica outbreaks.
Li Q.,Chinese National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia | Year: 2013
This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and three varieties of glomerulonephritis. Renal biopsy specimens from patients with Henoch Schonlein Purpura nephritis (HSPN; n = 10), membranous nephropathy (MN; n = 9) and lupus nephritis (LN; n = 27) were studied using immuno-histochemical labeling to clarify the etiological significance of H. pylori antigen in this disease. Immuno-histochemical labeling was performed using a mixture of anti-H. pylori-antibody-positive serum from nine volunteers; a mixture of anti-H. pylori-antibody-negative serum from nine volunteers was used as control. Staphylococci protein-A labeled by horseradish peroxidase was used as the second antibody in this study. A total of 34 of the 48 specimens revealed positive reaction with the anti-H. pylori-positive serum and five of the 48 specimens revealed positive reaction with the anti-H. pylori-negative serum. Positive reaction against anti-H. pylori-positive serum was seen in 10/10 patients with HSPN, six of nine patients with MN and 18/27 patients with LN. Statistical analysis showed that the difference of the positive reaction between anti-H. pylori-positive and negative sera was significant (χ 2 = 36.318, P = 0.000). Our study indicates that H. pylori infection may be associated with the development and/or progression of HSPN, MN and LN.
Huai P.,Shandong University |
Xun H.,Shandong University |
Reilly K.H.,Shandong University |
Wang Y.,Chinese National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention |
And 2 more authors.
Hypertension | Year: 2013
Published literature reports controversial results about the association of physical activity (PA) with risk of hypertension. A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies was performed to investigate the effect of PA on hypertension risk. PubMed and Embase databases were searched to identify all related prospective cohort studies. The Q test and I2 statistic were used to examine between-study heterogeneity. Fixed or random effects models were selected based on study heterogeneity. A funnel plot and modified Egger linear regression test were used to estimate publication bias. Thirteen prospective cohort studies were identified, including 136 846 persons who were initially free of hypertension, and 15 607 persons developed hypertension during follow-up. The pooled relative risk (RR) of main results from these studies suggests that both high and moderate levels of recreational PA were associated with decreased risk of hypertension (high versus low: RR, 0.81;95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.85 and moderate versus low: RR, 0.89;95% confidence interval, 0.85-0.94). The association of high or moderate occupational PA with decreased hypertension risk was not significant (high versus low: RR, 0.93;95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.08 and moderate versus low: RR, 0.96;95% confidence interval, 0.87-1.06). No publication bias was observed. The results of this meta-analysis suggested that there was an inverse dose-response association between levels of recreational PA and risk of hypertension, whereas there was no significant association between occupational PA and hypertension. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.
Zhang W.,Chinese National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention
PloS one | Year: 2013
Although the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) has been available for more than 75 years, one third of the world's population is still infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and approximately 2 million people die of TB every year. To reduce this immense TB burden, a clearer understanding of the functional genes underlying the action of BCG and the development of new vaccines are urgently needed. Comparative genomic analysis of 19 M. tuberculosis complex strains showed that BCG strains underwent repeated human manipulation, had higher region of deletion rates than those of natural M. tuberculosis strains, and lost several essential components such as T-cell epitopes. A total of 188 BCG strain T-cell epitopes were lost to various degrees. The non-virulent BCG Tokyo strain, which has the largest number of T-cell epitopes (359), lost 124. Here we propose that BCG strain protection variability results from different epitopes. This study is the first to present BCG as a model organism for genetics research. BCG strains have a very well-documented history and now detailed genome information. Genome comparison revealed the selection process of BCG strains under human manipulation (1908-1966). Our results revealed the cause of BCG vaccine strain protection variability at the genome level and supported the hypothesis that the restoration of lost BCG Tokyo epitopes is a useful future vaccine development strategy. Furthermore, these detailed BCG vaccine genome investigation results will be useful in microbial genetics, microbial engineering and other research fields.
Zhu B.Q.,Chinese National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] | Year: 2011
To analyze the characteristics of Sequence-based Typing (SBT) of the Serotype 1 Legionella pneumophila (Lp1) isolated from environmental water in China, and then create a preliminary database. A total of 82 strains of Lp1 isolated from environmental water in 9 provinces of China between 2005 and 2008 were genotyped by SBT method and Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) method. The results of the two different typing methods were then compared by cluster analysis, adopting BioNumerics version 5.1 software. By SBT method, the 82 strains of Lp1 were divided into 22 ST types, of which 17 new types and one new allele was discovered. The dominant type was ST-1 type, found in 8 provinces, accounting for 46.3% (38/82). ST-1, ST-150, ST-154, ST-159, ST-160 and ST-630 types were found in more than 2 isolated-sites; while more than 2 different ST types were found in 5 isolated-sites, as site B4, B5, B6, S3 and S8. In cluster analysis, 15 ST types were grouped into three complexes (ST-1 complex, ST-154 complex and ST-149 complex); and the other 7 ST types were not assigned complex. By PFGE method, 46 banding patterns were observed. As a result of the combination of the two methods, the 82 isolates strains could be divided into 54 molecular types, which showed a reliable accordance in the cluster analysis between the two methods. The SBT of the Lp1 in environmental water in China was unique. From the study, a preliminary SBT database was set up.
Zhang Y.-Z.,Chinese National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention
Virus Research | Year: 2014
Hantaviruses are among the most important zoonotic pathogens of humans, causing either hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). From the period 1964-2006 almost all hantaviruses had been identified in rodents, with the exception of Thottapalayam virus (TPMV) isolated from shrews sampled in India. As a consequence, rodents were considered as the natural reservoir hosts. However, over the past seven years, most of the newly found hantavirus genotypes have been from either shrews or moles. Remarkably, in recent years divergent hantaviruses have also been identified in bats sampled from both Africa and Asia. All these data indicate that hantaviruses have a broad range of natural reservoir hosts. Phylogenetic analyses of the available sequences of hantaviruses suggest that hantaviruses might have first appeared in Chiroptera (bats) or Soricomorpha (moles and shrews), before emerging in rodent species. Although rodent hantaviruses cluster according to whether their hosts are members of the Murinae and Cricetidae, the phylogenetic histories of the viruses are not always congruent with those of their hosts, indicating that cross-species transmission events have occurred at all taxonomic levels. In sum, both cross-species transmission and co-divergence have produced the high genetic diversity of hantaviruses described to date. © 2014 .
Chinese National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention | Date: 2012-08-29
The present inventions relates to primers for identifying Shigella flexneri serotypes comprising the sequences of SEQ ID Nos. 1 and 2, SEQ ID Nos. 3 and 4, SEQ ID Nos. 5 and 6, SEQ ID Nos. 7 and 8, SEQ ID Nos. 9 and 10, SEQ ID Nos. 11 and 12, SEQ ID Nos. 13 and 14, SEQ ID Nos. 15 and 16. These primers are specific and have a common annealing temperature. The present invention further relates to a multiplex amplification-based identification method using the primers. The present invention further relates to the use of the primers for identifying Shigella flexneri serotypes for the preparation of identification agents. The present invention further relates to a kit for identifying Shigella flexneri comprising the above primers.