Chinese National Human Genome Center

Shanghai, China

Chinese National Human Genome Center

Shanghai, China
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Gu Z.,Capital Medical University | Feng X.,Chinese National Human Genome Center | Dong X.,Capital Medical University | Chan P.,Capital Medical University | Chan P.,Chinese National Human Genome Center
Neuroscience Letters | Year: 2010

Smoking has been reported to be inversely associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) in many studies, but a recent study in China found that smoking increased the risk of PD. Variants in genes associated with dopamine metabolism found to increase the risk for PD have also been associated with smoking behavior. To investigate the association between smoking and PD in a Chinese population and determine whether the genetic variants of genes involved in dopamine metabolism influence the relationship between smoking and risk for PD. Chinese PD patients were recruited from Xuanwu Hospital. Controls were sampled from community. Detailed information on life-long smoking behavior was collected by face-to-face interview. Genotypes were determined for SLC6A3 VNTR, COMT Val108/158Met and MAO-B intron13 A/G polymorphisms by PCR-RFLP, DHPLC and sequencing. Chi-square and logistic regression model were used in the analysis. 176 PD cases and 354 controls were enrolled in this study. 23.9% cases are smokers, compared to 48.0% in controls. Ever smoking is inversely associated with PD (odds ratio = 0.14, 95% CI 0.08-0.26, adjusted for age and gender). None of the above-mentioned genetic polymorphisms was associated with PD risk or smoking. When each variant was included in the logistic regression model, the inverse association between smoking and PD remained the same, and the interactions between smoking and variants were not significant in the model. Our data support a reduction of PD risk associated with smoking in a Chinese population. These variants of genes associated with DA uptake and metabolism do not affect the inverse association between smoking and PD. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Ning B.-F.,Shanghai Changzheng Hospital | Ding J.,Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Institute | Yin C.,Shanghai Changzheng Hospital | Zhong W.,Shanghai Changzheng Hospital | And 10 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2010

Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) is a transcription factor that plays a key role in hepatocyte differentiation and the maintenance of hepatic function, but its role in hepatocarcinogenesis has yet to be examined. Here, we report evidence of a suppressor role for HNF4α in liver cancer. HNF4α expression was progressively decreased in the diethylinitrosamine- induced rat model of liver carcinogenesis. In human liver tissues, HNF4α expression was decreased in cirrhotic tissue and further decreased in hepatocarcinoma relative to healthy tissue. Notably, an inverse correlation existed with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Enforced expression of HNF4α attenuated hepatocyte EMT during hepatocarcinogenesis, alleviated hepatic fibrosis, and blocked hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurrence. In parallel, stem cell marker gene expression was inhibited along with cancer stem/progenitor cell generation. Further, enforced expression of HNF4α inhibited activation of β-catenin, which is closely associated with EMT and hepatocarcinogenesis. Taken together, our results suggest that the inhibitory effect of HNF4α on HCC development might be attributed to suppression of hepatocyte EMT and cancer stem cell generation through an inhibition of β-catenin signaling pathways. More generally, our findings broaden knowledge on the biological significance of HNF4α in HCC development, and they imply novel strategies for HCC prevention through the manipulation of differentiation-determining transcription factors in various types of carcinomas. ©2010 AACR.

Cheng Y.,Peking University | Cheng Y.,Key Laboratory of Vision Loss and Restoration | Huang L.Z.,Peking University | Huang L.Z.,Key Laboratory of Vision Loss and Restoration | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2(ARMS2) was suggested to be associated with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) in multiple genetic studies in Caucasians and Japanese. To date, no biological properties have been attributed to the putative protein in nAMD and PCV. The complete genes of ARMS2 and HTRA1 including all exons and the promoter region were assessed using direct sequencing technology in 284 unrelated mainland northern Chinese individuals: 96 nAMD patients, 92 PCV patients and 96 controls. Significant associations with both nAMD and PCV were observed in 2 polymorphisms of ARMS2 and HTRA1 rs11200638, with different genotypic distributions between nAMD and PCV (p<0.001). After adjusting for rs11200638, ARMS2 rs10490924 remained significantly associated with nAMD and PCV (p<0.001). Then we overexpressed wild-type ARMS2 and ARMS2 A69S mutation (rs10490924) in RF/6A cells and RPE cells as in vitro study model. Cell proliferation, attachment, migration and tube formation were analyzed for the first time. Compare with wild-type ARMS2, A69S mutation resulted in a significant increase in proliferation and attachment but inhibited cell migration. Moreover, neither wild-type ARMS2 nor A69S mutation affected tube formation of RF/6A cells. There is a strong and consistent association of the ARMS2/HTRA1 locus with both nAMD and PCV, suggesting the two disorders share, at least partially, similar molecular mechanisms. Neither wild-type ARMS2 nor A69S mutation had direct association with neovascularisation in the pathogenesis of AMD. © 2013 Cheng et al.

Jia L.-Y.,Peking University | Li X.-X.,Peking University | Yu W.-Z.,Peking University | Zeng W.-T.,Chinese National Human Genome Center | Liang C.,Chinese National Human Genome Center
Archives of Ophthalmology | Year: 2010

Objectives: To search for mutations in the Frizzled-4 gene (FZD4) in Chinese patients with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) and to delineate the mutation-associated clinical features. Methods: Forty-eight Chinese patients with FEVR and 100 unrelated control subjects were recruited and had complete ophthalmic examinations performed. The coding regions of FZD4 were screened for mutations by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. Multiple sequence alignment was conducted to evaluate the conservation of residues among different FZD4 homologs and the human Frizzled family. Genotype-phenotype correlations were also analyzed. Results: Twelve putative disease-causing mutations were identified in total, 9 of which were novel: 1 deletion (P14fsX57), 1 nonsense mutation (S491X), and 7 missense mutations (G22E, E180K, T237R, R253C, F328S, A339T, and D470N). Three reported FZD4 mutations were also detected: H69Y, M105V, and W496X. Remarkably, 2 patients who harbored compound heterozygous mutations (H69Y with E180K or W496X) had amore severe ocular phenotype than carriers of a single H69Y mutation. Conclusions: FZD4 mutations were responsible for FEVR in 15 of 48 Chinese patients (31.3%) in this study, similar to other ethnic groups. This study supports the highly polymorphic nature of FZD4 with a differential mutation profile in the Chinese population. Clinical Relevance: The profile of the mutations obtained in FZD4 further illustrates the complexity of FEVR and provides a better understanding of the genotype-phenotype correlations. ©2010 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

Zhang C.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Li S.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Yang L.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Huang P.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 9 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2013

Calorie restriction has been regarded as the only experimental regimen that can effectively lengthen lifespan in various animal models, but the actual mechanism remains controversial. The gut microbiota has been shown to have a pivotal role in host health, and its structure is mostly shaped by diet. Here we show that life-long calorie restriction on both high-fat or low-fat diet, but not voluntary exercise, significantly changes the overall structure of the gut microbiota of C57BL/6 J mice. Calorie restriction enriches phylotypes positively correlated with lifespan, for example, the genus Lactobacillus on low-fat diet, and reduces phylotypes negatively correlated with lifespan. These calorie restriction-induced changes in the gut microbiota are concomitant with significantly reduced serum levels of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, suggesting that animals under calorie restriction can establish a structurally balanced architecture of gut microbiota that may exert a health benefit to the host via reduction of antigen load from the gut. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Cheng J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Tian L.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Ma J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Gong Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Oncology | Year: 2015

Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal human cancers, and radiotherapy is often implemented for locally advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Tumor cell repopulation is a major challenge in treating cancers after radiotherapy. In order to address the problem of tumor repopulation, our previous studies have demonstrated that dying cells stimulate the proliferation of living tumor cells after radiotherapy. In particular, dying cells undergoing apoptosis also activate survival or proliferation signals and release growth factors to surrounding living cells. In the present study, we used an invitro model to examine the possible mechanisms for dying cell stimulated tumor repopulation in pancreatic cancer. In this model, a small number of living, luciferase-labeled pancreatic cancer cells (reporter) were seeded onto a layer of a much larger number of irradiated, unlabeled pancreatic cancer cells and the growth of the living cells was measured over time as a gage of tumor repopulation. Our results indicate that irradiated, dying Panc1 feeder cells significantly stimulated the proliferation of living Panc1 reporter cells. Importantly, we identified that the percentage of apoptotic cells and the cleavage of caspases 3 and 7 and protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) were increased in irradiated Panc1 cells. We presumed that caspases 3 and 7 and PKCδ as integral mediators in the process of dying pancreatic cancer cell stimulation of living tumor cell growth. In order to demonstrate the importance of caspases 3, 7 and PKCδ, we introduced dominant-negative mutants of caspase 3 (DN_C3), caspase 7 (DN_C7), or PKCδ (DN_PKCδ) into Panc1 cells using lentiviral vectors. The stably transduced Panc1 cells were irradiated and used as feeders and we found a significant decrease in the growth of living Panc1 reporter cells when compared with irradiated wild-type Panc1 cells as feeders. Moreover, the role of PKCδ in the growth stimulation of living tumor cells was further confirmed using a pan PKC inhibitor GF109203x and a specific PKCδ inhibitor, rottlerin. Additionally, we found significantly increased phosphorylation of Akt, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK1/2) in the irradiated Panc1 cells. Mechanistically, PKCδ cleavage was attenuated in both DN_C3 and DN_C7 transduced Panc1 cells, and both Akt and p38 MAPK phosphorylation were attenuated in DN_PKCδ transduced Panc1 cells following radiation. Thus, this report suggests a novel finding that cellular signaling caspase 3/7-PKCδ-Akt/p38 MAPK is crucial to the repopulation in Panc1 cells after radiotherapy. © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

Fan J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zhang Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Xiong H.,Chinese National Human Genome Center | Wang Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Guo X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Journal of General Virology | Year: 2015

Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is treated with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs). The reverse transcriptase (RT) region in the hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome mutates to resist NA treatment, yet the RT mutations have not been well characterized. Furthermore, the HBV genotype might influence RT sequence evolution, NA resistance (NAr) mutation patterns and drug resistance development. We examined 42 NAr mutation sites in 169 untreated and 131 NA-treated CHB patient samples. Patients were identified with HBV-B and HBV-C genotype infections, with a higher prevalence and mutation frequency of HBV-C than HBV-B. Seventeen reported NAr mutation sites and 13 novel mutations were detected. NAr-related mutation prevalence was significantly higher in NA-treated versus untreated patients. Primary antiviral-resistant mutants only existed in NA-treated patients. Sequencing data revealed seven HBV-C-specific mutations and three HBV-B-specific mutations. In conclusion, NA treatment and HBV genotype might constitute the selection basis and promote NA-resistant HBV strain evolution under antiviral therapy. © 2015 The Authors.

Jin W.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences | Xu S.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences | Wang H.,Chinese National Human Genome Center | Yu Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 6 more authors.
Genome Research | Year: 2012

It is particularly meaningful to investigate natural selection in African Americans (AfA) due to the high mortality their African ancestry has experienced in history. In this study, we examined 491,526 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 5210 individuals and conducted a genome-wide search for selection signals in 1890 AfA. Several genomic regions showing an excess of African or European ancestry, which were considered the footprints of selection since population admixture, were detected based on a commonly used approach. However, we also developed a new strategy to detect natural selection both pre- and post-admixture by reconstructing an ancestral African population (AAF) from inferred African components of ancestry in AfA and comparing it with indigenous African populations (IAF). Interestingly, many selection-candidate genes identified by the new approach were associated with AfA-specific high-risk diseases such as prostate cancer and hypertension, suggesting an important role these disease-related genes might have played in adapting to a new environment. CD36 and HBB, whose mutations confer a degree of protection against malaria, were also located in the highly differentiated regions between AAF and IAF. Further analysis showed that the frequencies of alleles protecting against malaria in AAF were lower than those in IAF, which is consistent with the relaxed selection pressure of malaria in the New World. There is no overlap between the top candidate genes detected by the two approaches, indicating the different environmental pressures AfA experienced pre- and post-population admixture. We suggest that the new approach is reasonably powerful and can also be applied to other admixed populations such as Latinos and Uyghurs. © 2012 by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

Cai Y.,Capital Medical University | Liu S.,Capital Medical University | Sothern R.B.,University of Minnesota | Xu S.,Capital Medical University | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Neurology | Year: 2010

Background: There is a growing number of clinical studies that revealed a variety of behavioral and physiological desynchronies in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, these desynchronies have not been defined at the molecular level. Methods: Using real-time RT-PCR assay, we analyzed the expression profiles of two principle clock genes, PER1 and BMAL1, in total leukocytes for 12 h during the evening, overnight and morning in subjects with PD and age/sex-matched healthy controls. Results: A difference in the expression pattern of BMAL1 but not PER1 was apparent during the dark span, where the relative abundance of BMAL1 was significantly lower in PD patients versus control subjects at 21:00, 00:00 and 06:00 h. Furthermore, expression levels of BMAL1 in PD patients correlated with their United Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score at 06:00, 09:00 h, and with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score at 06:00 h. Conclusion: These results suggest that a peripheral molecular clock, as reflected in the dampened expression of the clock genes BMAL1 in total leukocytes, is altered in PD patients. In addition, the relative BMAL1 levels correlate positively with PD severity, which could provide a molecular basis to help monitor disease progression and response to investigational drugs. © 2009 EFNS.

Liu N.,CAS Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology | Yan X.,CAS Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology | Zhang M.,East China Normal University | Xie L.,CAS Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology | And 5 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2011

Fungus-growing termites play an important role in lignocellulose degradation and carbon mineralization in tropical and subtropical regions, but the degradation potentiality of their gut microbiota has long been neglected. The high quality and quantity of intestinal microbial DNA are indispensable for exploring new cellulose genes from termites by function-based screening. Here, using a refined intestinal microbial DNA extraction method followed by multiple-displacement amplification (MDA), a fosmid library was constructed from the total microbial DNA isolated from the gut of a termite growing in fungi. Functional screening for endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, β-glucosidase, and xylanase resulted in 12 β-glucosidase-positive clones and one xylanase-positive clone. The sequencing result of the xylanase-positive clone revealed an 1,818-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 64.5-kDa multidomain endo-1,4-β-xylanase, designated Xyl6E7, which consisted of an N-terminal GH11 family catalytic domain, a CBM-4-9 domain, and a Listeria-Bacteroides repeat domain. Xyl6E7 was a highly active, substrate-specific, and endo-acting alkaline xylanase with considerably wide pH tolerance and stability but extremely low thermostability. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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