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Zhang X.,Shandong Agricultural University | Dong Y.,Shandong Agricultural University | Dong Y.,Chinese National Engineering Laboratory for Efficient Utilization of Soil and Fertilizer Resources | Dong Y.,Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Slow Controlled Release Fertilizers | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2014

The aim of this research was to study the role of nitric oxide (NO) in alleviating iron deficiency induced chlorosis of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). For this study, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was used to supply NO for hydroponic peanut plants. After 18 days, the peanut seedlings growing without iron exhibited significant leaf interveinal chlorosis, and this iron-deficiency induced symptom was completely prevented by NO. An increased content of chlorophyll and active iron was observed in NO-treated young leaves, suggesting an improvement of iron availability in plants. In addition, the improved rhizosphere acidification and increased secretion of organic acids by root in NO-treated plants suggesting that NO is effective in modulating iron uptake and transport inside the peanut plants. Furthermore, NO treatment alleviated the increased accumulation of superoxide anion (O2•−) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and modulated the antioxidant enzymes. However, the SNP with a prior sunlight treatment that does not release NO had no significant effect on the chlorophyll levels in iron-deficient plants. Therefore, these results support a physiological action of NO on the availability, uptake and transport of iron in the plant. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Wang Q.,Shandong Agricultural University | Liang X.,Shandong Agricultural University | Dong Y.,Shandong Agricultural University | Dong Y.,Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Slow Controlled Release Fertilizers | And 4 more authors.
Plant Growth Regulation | Year: 2013

The effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a donor of NO) on cadmium (Cd) toxicity in ryegrass seedlings (Lolium perenne L.) were studied by investigating the symptoms, plant growth, chlorophyll content, lipid peroxidation, H+-ATPase enzyme and antioxidative enzymes. Addition of 100 μM CdCl2 caused serious chlorosis and inhibited the growth of ryegrass seedlings, and dramatically increased accumulation of Cd in both shoots and roots, furthermore, the absorption of macro and micronutrients were inhibited. Addition of 50, 100, 200 μM SNP significantly decreased the transport of Cd from roots to shoots, alleviated the inhibition of K, Ca, Mg and Fe, Cu, Zn absorption induced by Cd, reduced the toxicity symptoms and promoted the plant growth. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) significantly increased in ryegrass seedlings exposed to Cd, and resulted in the lipid peroxidation, which was indicated by accumulated concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. Addition of 50, 100, 200 μM SNP significantly decreased the level of ROS and lipid peroxidation. Activities of antioxidant enzymes also showed the same changes. Addition of 50, 100, 200 μM SNP increased activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase in ryegrass seedlings exposed to Cd. Addition of 100 μM SNP had the most significant alleviating effect against Cd toxicity while the addition of 400 μM SNP had no significant effect with Cd treatment. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Wang Q.,Shandong Agricultural University | Liang X.,Shandong Agricultural University | Dong Y.,Shandong Agricultural University | Dong Y.,Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Slow Controlled Release Fertilizers | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Plant Growth Regulation | Year: 2013

The effects of Cd, in combination with salicylic acid (SA) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), on ryegrass seedlings were studied. Exposure of plants to 0.1 mM CdCl2 for 2 weeks resulted in toxicity symptoms such as chlorosis and necrotic spots on leaves. The addition of 0.2 mM SA or 0.1 mM SNP slightly alleviated the toxic effects of Cd. After application of both SA and SNP, these symptoms significantly decreased. Treatment with Cd resulted in a decrease of dry weight of roots and shoots, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (P n), transpiration rate (T r), and the uptake and translocation of mineral elements. In Cd-treated plants, levels of lipoxygenase activity and malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and proline contents significantly increased, whereas the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase, decreased in both roots and shoots. The results indicated that Cd caused physiological stresses in ryegrass plants. The Cd-stressed plants exposed to SA or SNP, especially to SA + SNP, exhibited improved growth compared with Cd-stressed plants. Application of SA or SNP, especially the combination SA + SNP, considerably reduced root-to-shoot translocation of Cd and increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes in both roots and shoots of Cd-stressed plants. The interaction of SA and SNP increased chlorophyll content, P n and T r in leaves, and the uptake and translocation of mineral elements, and decreased lipid peroxidation and H2O2 and proline accumulation in roots and shoots. These results suggest that SA or SNP, and, in particular, their combination counteracted the negative effects of Cd on ryegrass plants. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Zhang X.W.,Shandong Agricultural University | Dong Y.J.,Shandong Agricultural University | Dong Y.J.,Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Slow Controlled Release Fertilizers | Qiu X.K.,Shandong Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Plant, Soil and Environment | Year: 2012

Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) donor, was added into controlled release fertilizer (CRF) or sprayed on leaves to supply NO on iron deficiency stress in peanut (Arachis hypogaea Linn) plants growing on calcareous soils. Iron deficiency reduced plant growth and chlorophyll content. NO improved plant growth and alleviated leaf interveinal chlorosis, and increased the activity of root FeIII reductase and the concentration of available iron in cultured soil, suggesting that NO action could be related to iron availability to the plant. The actual photochemical efficiency (ΦPSII) and photochemical maximum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) were increased, and minimum fluorescence yield (Fo) was decreased under NO-treated condition, which supported the protective effect of NO on photosystem II (PSII) in peanut leaves. NO increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation. These results suggest that exogenous NO could alleviate iron deficiency induced chlorosis of peanut plants growing on calcareous soil.


Xu L.,Shandong Agricultural University | Dong Y.,Shandong Agricultural University | Dong Y.,Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Slow Controlled Release Fertilizers | Fan Z.,Shandong Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Plant Interactions | Year: 2014

A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a nitric oxide [NO] donor) on cadmium (Cd) toxicity in peanut plants. SNP solution was poured into Cd-contaminated soil at sowing, seedling, flowering, and pod setting stages, respectively. The results showed that exogenous NO increased the biomass and yield of peanuts and improved chlorophyll content, photosynthesis (Pn), and transpiration (Tr). Cd-induced oxidative damages were eliminated by exogenous NO, reflected by decreased accumulation of superoxide anion (O·- 2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and malondialdehyde (MDA). Moreover, exogenous NO increased Cd-decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and soluble protein and proline contents also reached a normal level. Furthermore, exogenous NO improved the uptake of nutrient elements and reduced Cd accumulation in the roots, shoots, and kernels under Cd stress. These data suggest that SNP application at sowing and seedling stages had better alleviation effects on Cd toxicity in peanut plants. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.


Xu L.,Shandong Agricultural University | Dong Y.,Shandong Agricultural University | Dong Y.,Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Slow Controlled Release Fertilizers | Kong J.,Shandong Agricultural University | Liu S.,Shandong Agricultural University
Plant Growth Regulation | Year: 2014

The effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a donor of NO) on cadmium (Cd) toxicity in lettuce seedlings were studied. SNP was added into hydroponic systems or sprayed directly on the leaves of plants grown with and without Cd. Excess supply of Cd (100 μM) caused growth inhibition, dramatically increased Cd accumulation in both leaves and roots, and inhibited the absorption of Ca, Mg, Fe and Cu. Excess Cd also decreased activities of superoxide dismutase peroxidase and catalase in leaves and roots, and increased the accumulation of superoxide anion (O2 ·-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Root or foliar applications of exogenous NO alleviated Cd-induced growth suppression, especially root application of 250 μM SNP and foliar addition of 500 μM SNP. Addition of SNP promoted the chlorophyll synthesis suggesting that the photosynthesis was up-regulated. Exogenous NO increased Cd-decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes and markedly diminished Cd-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and MDA accumulation. Moreover, the absorption of Ca, Mg, Fe and Cu was increased, indicating that exogenous NO stimulated H+-ATPase activity to promote sequestration or uptake of ions. In addition, exogenous NO also inhibited Cd transfer from roots to shoots, which may indicate that Cd retention in roots induced by NO plays a significant role in Cd tolerance in lettuce seedlings. These data suggest that under Cd stress, exogenous NO improves photosynthesis by increasing chlorophyll synthesis, protects lettuce seedlings against oxidative damage by scavenging ROS, helps to maintain the uptake of nutrient elements, and inhibits Cd transferred to shoots effectively. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Xu L.L.,Shandong Agricultural University | Fan Z.Y.,Shandong Agricultural University | Dong Y.J.,Shandong Agricultural University | Dong Y.J.,Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Slow Controlled Release Fertilizers | And 4 more authors.
Plant Biosystems | Year: 2015

The study aimed to test the effects of sodium nitroprusside [SNP, a nitric oxide (NO) donor], supplied with different approaches on cadmium (Cd) toxicity in lettuce seedlings (Lactuca sativa) in a pot experiment. SNP (8.94 mg) was applied into Cd-contaminated soil directly or added into a capsule, a paper bag, starch-coated granules, or foliar application. Cd (50 mg kg− 1) reduced chlorophyll content, caused oxidative stress, increased Cd accumulation in roots and leaves, and inhibited the uptake of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and iron (Fe). The addition of exogenous NO in Cd-contaminated soil increased chlorophyll content, improved antioxidant enzyme activities, promoted the uptake of Ca, Mg, and Fe, reduced Cd-induced oxidative damages, and inhibited Cd transferred from roots to shoots. Moreover, SNP supplied with different approaches had varied effects on Cd tolerance of lettuce seedlings. The alleviated effect of SNP applied into soil directly was the worst, and the three SNP slow release materials had better alleviation effects on Cd toxicity. Foliar SNP application had the best effects on increasing Cd tolerance in lettuce seedlings. © 2013, Società Botanica Italiana.

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