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Sun J.,National Center for Control and Prevention | Liu H.,National Center for Control and Prevention | Li H.,National Center for Control and Prevention | Wang L.,China Office of Family Health International | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2010

Background: For 20 years, China has participated in 267 international cooperation projects against the HIV/AIDS epidemic and received ~526 million USD from over 40 international organizations. These projects have played an important role by complementing national efforts in the fight against HIV/AIDS in China. Methods: The diverse characteristics of these projects followed three phases over 20 years. Initially, stand-alone projects provided technical support in surveillance, training or advocacy for public awareness. As the epidemic spread across China, projects became a part of the comprehensive and integrated national response. Currently, international best practices encourage the inclusion of civil society and non-governmental organizations in an expanded response to the epidemic. Results: Funding from international projects has accounted for one-third of the resources provided for the HIV/AIDS response in China. Beyond this strong financial support, these programmes have introduced best practices, accelerated the introduction of AIDS policies, strengthened capacity, improved the development of grassroots social organizations and established a platform for communication and experience sharing with the international community. However, there are still challenges ahead, including integrating existing resources and exploring new programme models. The National Centre for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention (NCAIDS) in China is consolidating all international projects into national HIV prevention, treatment and care activities. Conclusion: International cooperation projects have been an invaluable component of China's response to HIV/AIDS, and China has now been able to take this information and share its experiences with other countries with the help of these same international programmes. © The Author 2010; all rights reserved.


Han M.,National Center for Control and Prevention | Chen Q.,National Center for Control and Prevention | Hao Y.,Chinese Ministry of Health | Hu Y.,National Center for Control and Prevention | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2010

Background: Prior to 2003, there was limited capacity for an HIV/AIDS response in China. In early 2003, China launched a 5-year China Comprehensive AIDS Response Programme (China CARES) to contain the spread of HIV infection and reduce its impact. This article describes the China CARES' practices and experiences. Methods: China CARES covered 83.3 million people in 127 programme sites chosen from 28 provinces based on HIV prevalence. Each China CARES site was required to carry out surveillance and surveys to understand the local HIV/AIDS epidemic, to deliver primary interventions to reduce new HIV infections among and from high-risk groups, to prevent mother-to-child transmission, to treat AIDS patients with antiretroviral medicines and to provide support services to families affected by HIV/AIDS. Data were collected to monitor and evaluate implementation. Results: HIV/AIDS prevention knowledge and awareness improved significantly in China CARES sites from <30% in 2004 to 86% in 2008. The number of persons tested for HIV increased by 67% between 2005 and 2007 from 1.5 to 2.5 million. China CARES enrolled 23 000 patients in anti-retroviral treatment and supported 6007 AIDS orphans. Among pregnant women, 81.8% received counselling and 75.8% received HIV testing during antenatal care, while 92.9% of HIV-infected pregnant women and 85.5% of their newborns received anti-retroviral prophylaxis. During the project period, no known HIV transmissions occurred through blood transfusions. Conclusion: China CARES has facilitated AIDS prevention, treatment and care in resource-poor, rural and ethnic minority areas of China. © The Author 2010; all rights reserved.


Wu Z.,National Center for Control and Prevention | Xu J.,National Center for Control and Prevention | Liu E.,National Center for Control and Prevention | Mao Y.,National Center for Control and Prevention | And 24 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has rapidly spread among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China in recent years; the magnitude of the epidemic is unclear. We sought to test 3 hypotheses: (1) The prevalence of both HIV and syphilis among MSM in China is high, (2) the 2 epidemics each have unique geographical distributions, and (3) demographic and sexual behavior characteristics are different among segments of the MSM population in China.Methods. A total of 47 231 MSM from 61 cities in China participated in a cross-sectional survey conducted from February 2008 to September 2009. Demographic and behavioral data were collected and analyzed and blood samples tested for HIV and syphilis. Three subgroups among the broader MSM sample were described. Main outcome measures were HIV and syphilis prevalence.Results. An overall prevalence of 4.9% (2314/47 231; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.7%-5.1%) for HIV and 11.8% (5552/47 231; 95% CI, 11.5%-12.0%) for syphilis was found. Syphilis-positive MSM had the highest HIV prevalence, 12.5% (693/5552; 95% CI, 11.6%-13.4%). However, correlations between HIV and syphilis prevalence were found in only 3 of 6 geographical regions (Northwest: r = 0.82, P =. 0253; East: r = 0.78, P =. 0004; and South-central: r = 0.63, P =. 0276). Three subgroups - nonlocal MSM, Internet-using MSM, and female-partnering MSM - were found to have different profiles of characteristics and behaviors.Conclusions. HIV and syphilis prevalences among MSM in China are high and the 2 epidemics are largely separate geographically. Three segments of the Chinese MSM population each have different demographic and sexual risk "profiles" that suggest high potential for bridging infection across geographies, generations, and sexes. © 2013 The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Peoples Hospital of Feicheng City, Indiana University, Tianjin Medical University, Liaoning Cancer Institute and Hospital and 4 more.
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016

To determine the preliminary effectiveness of breast cancer screening among Chinese females, 1226714 women aged 35-69 years first received clinical breast examinations. Urban women with suspected cancer received mammography followed by breast ultrasound (BUS), while rural suspected women underwent BUS followed by mammography. After one-year follow-up, 223 and 431 breast cancers were detected among urban and rural women (respectively), with overall detection rates of 0.56/1000 and 0.52/1000. Higher detection rates were significantly associated with older age at screening for both urban and rural women; additionally, urban women were at significantly higher risk if they had no job, no insurance, or were obese; additional risk factors specific to rural women included Han nationality, higher income, being unmarried, and having a family history of cancer (all P values<0.05). Among screening-detected breast cancers in urban vs. rural women, 46.2% and 38.8% (respectively) were early stage, 62.5% and 66.3% were 2 centimeters, 38.0% and 47.3% included lymph-node involvement, and 14.0% and 6.0% were identified as carcinoma in situ. All abovementioned cancer characteristics were significantly better than clinic-detected cancers (all P values<0.001). In conclusion, several important differences were found between urban and rural women in screening effectiveness and patterns of cancer distribution.

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