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Sun J.,National Center for Control and Prevention | Liu H.,National Center for Control and Prevention | Li H.,National Center for Control and Prevention | Wang L.,China Office of Family Health International | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2010

Background: For 20 years, China has participated in 267 international cooperation projects against the HIV/AIDS epidemic and received ~526 million USD from over 40 international organizations. These projects have played an important role by complementing national efforts in the fight against HIV/AIDS in China. Methods: The diverse characteristics of these projects followed three phases over 20 years. Initially, stand-alone projects provided technical support in surveillance, training or advocacy for public awareness. As the epidemic spread across China, projects became a part of the comprehensive and integrated national response. Currently, international best practices encourage the inclusion of civil society and non-governmental organizations in an expanded response to the epidemic. Results: Funding from international projects has accounted for one-third of the resources provided for the HIV/AIDS response in China. Beyond this strong financial support, these programmes have introduced best practices, accelerated the introduction of AIDS policies, strengthened capacity, improved the development of grassroots social organizations and established a platform for communication and experience sharing with the international community. However, there are still challenges ahead, including integrating existing resources and exploring new programme models. The National Centre for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention (NCAIDS) in China is consolidating all international projects into national HIV prevention, treatment and care activities. Conclusion: International cooperation projects have been an invaluable component of China's response to HIV/AIDS, and China has now been able to take this information and share its experiences with other countries with the help of these same international programmes. © The Author 2010; all rights reserved. Source

Liu M.,Shanxi Medical University | Shi X.,Beijing Hospital and Beijing Institute of Geriatrics | Yang F.,Beijing Hospital and Beijing Institute of Geriatrics | Yang F.,Peking Union Medical College | And 16 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2016

Prostate cancer (PCa) is amultifactorial disease involving complex genetic and environmental factors interactions. Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions associated with PCa in Chinese men are less studied. We explored the association between 36 SNPs and PCa in 574 subjects from northern China. Body mass index (BMI), smoking, and alcohol consumption were determined through self-administered questionnaires in 134 PCa patients. Then gene-gene and gene-environment interactions among the PCa-associated SNPs were analyzed using the generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) and logistic regression methods. Allelic and genotypic association analyses showed that six variants were associated with PCa and the cumulative effect suggested men who carried any combination of 1, 2, or ≥3 risk genotypes had a gradually increased PCa risk (odds ratios (ORs) = 1.79–4.41). GMDR analysis identified the best gene-gene interaction model with scores of 10 for both the cross-validation consistency and sign tests. For gene-environment interactions, rs6983561 CC and rs16901966 GG in individuals with a BMI ≥ 28 had ORs of 7.66 (p = 0.032) and 5.33 (p = 0.046), respectively. rs7679673 CC + CA and rs12653946 TT in individuals that smoked had ORs of 2.77 (p = 0.007) and 3.11 (p = 0.024), respectively. rs7679673 CC in individuals that consumed alcohol had an OR of 4.37 (p = 0.041). These results suggest that polymorphisms, either individually or by interacting with other genes or environmental factors, contribute to an increased risk of PCa. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Zhang Y.-R.,Beijing Hospital and Beijing Institute of Geriatrics | Zhang Y.-R.,Ningxia Medical University | Xu Y.,Tianjin Medical University | Liu M.,Beijing Hospital and Beijing Institute of Geriatrics | And 18 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2012

Background/Aim: Six prostate cancer (PCa) susceptibility loci were identified in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in populations of European decent. However, the associations of these 6 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with PCa has remained tobe clarified in men in Northern China. This study aimed to explore the loci associated with PCa risk in a Northern Chinese population. Methods: Blood samples and clinical information of 289 PCa patients and 288 controls from Beijing and Tianjin were collected. All risk SNPs were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-high resolution melting curve technology and gene sequencing. Associations between PCa and clinical covariates (age at diagnosis, prostate-specific antigen [PSA], Gleason score, tumor stage, and level of aggressiveness) and frequencies of alleles and genotypes of these SNPs were analyzed using genetic statistics. Results: Among the candidate SNPs, 11p15 (rs7127900, A) was associated with PCa risk (P = 0.02, odds ratio [OR] = 1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09-2.46). Genotypes showed differences between cases and controls on 11p15 (rs7127900, A), 11q13 (rs7931342, T), and HNF1B (rs4430796, A) (P = 0.03, P = 0.01, and P = 0.04, respectively). The genotype TG on 11q13 (rs7931342, T) was positively associated with an increased Gleason score (P = 0.04, OR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.02-4.55). Patients carrying TG on 17q24 (rs1859962, G) were negatively associated with an increased body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.03, OR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.21-0.92) while those with AG on HNF1B (rs4430796, A) were more likely to have PSA increase (P = 0.002). Conclusion: Our study suggests that 11p15 (rs7127900, A) could be a susceptibility locus associated with PCa in Northern Chinese. Genotype TG on 11q13 (rs7931342, T) could be related to an increased Gleason score, AG on HNF1B (rs4430796, A) could be associated with PSA increase, and TG on 17q24 (rs1859962, G) could be negatively associated with an increased BMI in Chinese men with PCa. Source

Zhao C.-X.,Beijing Hospital and Beijing Institute of Geriatrics | Zhao C.-X.,Peking Union Medical College | Zhao C.-X.,Shanxi Medical University | Liu M.,Shanxi Medical University | And 6 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2013

Multiple genetic studies have confirmed association of 8q24 variants with susceptibility to prostate cancer (PCa). As PCa risk SNPs may also influence disease outcome, we studied here eight 8q24 risk alleles, and evaluated their role in PCa clinical covariates in northern Chinese men. Blood samples and clinical information were collected from ethnically Chinese men from Northern China with histologically-confirmed PCa (n=289) and from age-matched normal controls (n=288). Eight 8q24 SNPs were genotyped by polymerase chain reactionhigh- resolution melting analysis in 577 subjects. We examined the prevalence distribution of 8q24 risk alleles and analyzed the associations between the risk allele and PCa and clinical covariates to infer their impact on aggressive PCa. Three of the eight SNPs were associated with PCa risk in northern Chinese men, including rs16901966 (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.01-1.70, p=0.042), rs1447295 (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.09-1.98, p=0.011) and rs10090154 (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.14-2.12, p=0.005). Haplotype analysis based association with the risk alleles revealed significant differences between cases and controls (OR 1.43, 95%CI 0.99-2.06, p=0.049). The risk alleles rs16901966, rs1447295 and rs10090154 were associated with age at diagnosis and tumor stage as compared with controls, while rs16901966 was associated with aggressive PCa (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.01-2.03, p=0.042). The evidence for 8q24 SNPs with PCa risk in northern Chinese men showed rs16901966, rs1447295 and rs10090154 at 8q24 (region 1, region 2) to be strongly associated with PCa and clinical covariates. The three SNPs at 8q24 could be PCa susceptible genetic markers in northern Chinese men. Source

Wang N.-N.,Beijing Hospital and Beijing Institute of Geriatrics | Wang N.-N.,Ningxia Medical University | Xu Y.,Tianjin Medical University | Yang K.,Tianjin Medical University | And 19 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2013

Background: KLK3 gene products, like human prostate-specific antigen (PSA), are important biomarkers in theclinical diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). G protein-coupled receptor RFX6, C2orf43 and FOXP4 signaling plays important roles in the development of PCa. However, associations of these genes with PCa in northern Chinese menremain to be detailed. This study aimed to investigate their impact on occurrence and level of malignancy. Methods: All subjects were from Beijing and Tianjin, including 266 cases with prostate cancer and 288 normal individuals as controls. We evaluated associations between clinical covariates (age at diagnosis, prostate specific antigen, Gleason score, tumor stage and aggressive) and 6 candidate PCa risk loci, genotyped by PCR- high resolutionmelting curve and sequencing methods. Results: Case-control analysis of allelic frequency of PCa associated withPCa showed that one of the 6 candidate risk loci, rs339331 in the RFX6 gene, was associated with reduced risk ofprostate cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) =0.57-0.94, P = 0.013) in northern Chinesemen. In addition, subjects with CX (CC+TC) genotypes had a decreased risk for prostrate cancer compared to thosecarrying the TT homozygote (OR =0.64, 95% CI = 0.45-0.90, P = 0.008). The TT genotype of 13q22 (rs9600079, T) was associated with tumor stage (P=0.044, OR=2.34, 95% CI=0.94-5.87). Other SNPs were not significantly associated with clinical covariates in prostate cancer (P > 0.05). Conclusions. rs339331 in the RFX6 gene may be associated with prostate cancer as a susceptibility locus in northern Chinese men. Source

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