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Jiao J.-L.,Hefei University of Technology | Qi Y.-Y.,Hefei University of Technology | Cao Q.,Hefei University of Technology | Liu L.-C.,Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection | Liang Q.-M.,Beijing Institute of Technology
Energy Strategy Reviews | Year: 2013

This paper estimated CO2 emissions based on the IPCC reference approach under five scenarios that consider China's economic and energy development strategy. Based on the LDMI method, the contributions of per-capita production value, industrial structure, energy intensity, energy mix and coefficients of discharge to CO2 emissions were analyzed in nine carbon-intensive industries. The emission reduction target for nine industries and five influencing factors were allocated, using scenarios in which China's emission reduction target is not realized. The results show that the reduction target can be realized completely if energy intensity and the share of non-fossil fuel use in primary energy consumption can reach the objectives of China's mid and long-term strategic. There will be uncertainly if the share of non-fossil fuel use does not increase to 15%. And the task of reducing emissions in the industry of Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous Metals is the most arduous among the nine industries considered.© 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Liu L.-C.,Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection | Wu G.,National Science Foundation
Natural Hazards | Year: 2014

USA and China are the two largest energy-consuming countries, and energy supply vulnerability is a prior topic on energy policy. Then, we develop energy supply vulnerability assessment index including the sustainability, the stability, the reliability, and the diversification indicators to assess and compare the change of energy supply vulnerability between China and USA based on the data in 2001-2010. We found that the fluctuations of energy supply vulnerability in China are more than those of USA. In 2001-2006, the index of China's energy supply vulnerability presented a quick uptrend, but it presented a slow downtrend in 2007-2010 due to the uncertainty of some indicators; energy supply vulnerability of USA presented smaller change from 2000 to 2008 because of the stable and comprehensive energy supply system, but in 2009 and 2010, it became obviously less than those in other years due to the decline of energy consumption per capita. Additionally, Chinese energy supply also faces higher maritime transportation and geopolitical vulnerability than that of USA. The comparisons of the change of energy supply vulnerability between China and USA show that it is important to develop comprehensive energy supply system to reduce the uncertainty of main effect indicators, such as the control of energy consumption growth, and the diversification of energy supply and import. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Wu G.,CAS Institute of Policy and Management | Liu L.-C.,Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection | Han Z.-Y.,National Science Foundation | Wei Y.-M.,Beijing Institute of Technology
Applied Energy | Year: 2012

Since 1996 China became a net importer of crude oil, energy security has faced lots of supply risks and the issues of security on energy using have become more and more acute. The Chinese government has taken a series of policies and measures and enacted relevant laws to guarantee energy security and mitigate global climate change. What changes has energy security in China experienced in these years? What impacts has the implementation of energy security and climate protection policies brought to China's energy security? This paper has established the evaluation indicators and model of the energy security index. The model evaluation results show that: (1) in 1996-2009, the index of China's energy supply security presented an uptrend and then downtrend. For example, it presented a rapid uptrend in 1996-2001, a quick downtrend in 2002-2005, and a slow downtrend in 2006-2009. The energy supply security index in 2009 was kept basically the same as that in 1996. (2) In 1996-2009, the index of China's energy using security presented a fluctuated uptrend. For example, it presented a fluctuating uptrend in 1996-2002, and dropped to a relative low level in 2003-2005, and then quickly rose in 2006-2009. (3) The policy of "China's energy-saving and emission reduction" has slowed down the decreasing speed of the index of energy supply security and also conspicuously improved the index of energy using security, so that the composite index of China's energy security presented an uptrend, then downtrend and finally uptrend. The policy of "China's energy-saving and emission reduction" has been successfully conducted, proving that a win-win result can be achieved between climate change protection and China's energy security. © 2011. Source


Cai B.-F.,Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection
Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue/China Environmental Science | Year: 2014

Chongqing 1 km resolution CO2 emission gridded data had been built up based on point emission sources and other supporting data. The CO2 emissions in Chongqing's four urban boundaries, namely city administrative boundary (UB1), city district boundary (UB2), city built-up area (UB3) and urban proper (UB4), were analyzed and compared based on this emission gridded dataset. UB4 was the appropriate spatial boundary for city of Chongqing, while UB1 was suitable for the spatial boundary of Chongqing region. Different urban boundaries could result in substantial emission discrepancy. The total emissions of UB4 only accounted for 17.13% of the emissions of UB1, whereas the per capita emissions of UB4 were 1.6 times of UB1 level. The UB4, with average emissions of grid more than 10000tons, shaped the emissions center of the UB1. The emissions of grids in more than 70% area of UB1 were lower than 200tons. The predominant share of industrial emissions in total emissions in UB4 resulted in the spatial pattern that the per capita emissions were higher in urban area than in its peripheral area. This pattern was opposite to what was found in cities of developed countries. There was spatially clustering phenomenon in CO2 emissions in UB1, as indicated by spatial autocorrelation analysis. This implied that the economic activities and energy consumption in some areas have significant positive effect on its surroundings. Emissions of certain individual grid accounted for more than 40% of the total emissions in UB4. The emissions in 7.00% area of UB4, 1.21% area of UB1 and 3.84% area of UB2, had accounted for more that 85% of emissions in their correspondent urban boundaries. Source


Gong M.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Du P.,Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection | Liu X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhu C.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2014

The solubilization of tricalcium phosphate is often considered as the standard for screening of most phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms (PSMs). However, usually the effect of large-scale application of PSM on the promotion of crop growth varies. This study presents an efficient method for screening and testing phosphate-solubilizing fungus that enhance plant growth. A fungus Penicillium oxalicum I1 (P-I1) was isolated and identified that had high ability of phosphate-solubilization and could utilize maize root exudates as sources, and propagate well in vitro and in soil. P-I1 excreted oxalic acid and reached 593.9 μg/ml, and the pH value was decreased from 6.90 to 1.65 in 26 h. The amount of P-I1 increased by 48-fold in 28 d and was maintained for 49 d in soil. PSM showed selectivity on the transformation of the different forms of phosphorus, a wide range of insoluble phosphates, such as Ca8H2(PO4)6·5H2O, AlPO4, FePO4, and Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, were converted to soluble CaHPO4 in soil, and CaHPO4 was also inhibited from being converted into insoluble phosphate by P-I1. The Ca2-P content reached 27.11 μg/g soil on day 28 at 20°C, which increased by 110.32%, and plant growth promotion was tested and verified, the results showed that maize yield increased remarkably than control after inoculated P-I1, maize yield increased maximum by 14.47%. The data presented that P-I1 appear attractive for exploring their plant growth-promoting activity and potential field application. © 2014, The Microbiological Society of Korea and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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