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Su J.,Beijing Normal University | Su J.,Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection | Wang X.,Beijing Normal University | Liang Y.,Management Office of Miyun Reservoir | Chen B.,Beijing Normal University
Journal of Hydrologic Engineering | Year: 2014

Reservoir storage prediction is essential to the operation and management of reservoirs. In this paper, a genetic algorithm (GA)-based support vector machine (SVM) model was developed for the prediction of monthly reservoir storage of Miyun Reservoir (the only surface drinking water source for Beijing city) over the period of 1995 to 2011. At the same time, two other SVM-based models that combine grid search and particle swarm optimization methods respectively for the parameter optimization, were used for comparison. The results showed that the developed GA-SVM model had the best performance in calibration and prediction. Owing to its high accuracy, the GA-SVM model would be popularized to the prediction of reservoir storage in other regions. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Liu L.-C.,Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection | Li Q.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics | Zhang J.-T.,The Administrative Center For Chinas Agenda 21 | Cao D.,Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change | Year: 2016

China encourages the demonstration of carbon capture and storage (CCS) projects. In an effort to identify gaps and provide suggestions for environmental risk management of carbon dioxide (CO2) geological storage in China, this article presents a concise overview of potential health, safety and environmental (HSE) risks and environmental management regulations for CO2 geological storage in Australia, Japan, the United States (USA), the European Union (EU), and the United Kingdom (UK). The environmental impact assessment (EIA) experience of Shenhua Ordos Coal-to-Liquid (CTL) Project and PetroChina Jilin Oil Field enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is subsequently analyzed in light of our field investigation, and gaps in current EIA guidelines that are applicable to CO2 geological storage projects are identified. It is found that there are no specific environmental risk regulations suitable for CO2 storage in China, and environmental risk management lags behind the development of CCS technology, which presents a challenge to demonstration enterprises in terms of assessing environmental risk. One major challenge is the overestimation or underestimation of this risk on the part of the enterprise, and another is a lack of applicable regulations for government sectors to supervise the risk throughout CCS projects. Therefore, there is a pressing need for China to formulate environmental management regulations that include environmental risk assessment, mandatory monitoring schemes, environmental emergency plans, and related issues. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Liu L.-C.,Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection | Wu G.,National Science Foundation
Natural Hazards | Year: 2014

USA and China are the two largest energy-consuming countries, and energy supply vulnerability is a prior topic on energy policy. Then, we develop energy supply vulnerability assessment index including the sustainability, the stability, the reliability, and the diversification indicators to assess and compare the change of energy supply vulnerability between China and USA based on the data in 2001-2010. We found that the fluctuations of energy supply vulnerability in China are more than those of USA. In 2001-2006, the index of China's energy supply vulnerability presented a quick uptrend, but it presented a slow downtrend in 2007-2010 due to the uncertainty of some indicators; energy supply vulnerability of USA presented smaller change from 2000 to 2008 because of the stable and comprehensive energy supply system, but in 2009 and 2010, it became obviously less than those in other years due to the decline of energy consumption per capita. Additionally, Chinese energy supply also faces higher maritime transportation and geopolitical vulnerability than that of USA. The comparisons of the change of energy supply vulnerability between China and USA show that it is important to develop comprehensive energy supply system to reduce the uncertainty of main effect indicators, such as the control of energy consumption growth, and the diversification of energy supply and import. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Wu G.,CAS Institute of Policy and Management | Liu L.-C.,Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection | Han Z.-Y.,National Science Foundation | Wei Y.-M.,Beijing Institute of Technology
Applied Energy | Year: 2012

Since 1996 China became a net importer of crude oil, energy security has faced lots of supply risks and the issues of security on energy using have become more and more acute. The Chinese government has taken a series of policies and measures and enacted relevant laws to guarantee energy security and mitigate global climate change. What changes has energy security in China experienced in these years? What impacts has the implementation of energy security and climate protection policies brought to China's energy security? This paper has established the evaluation indicators and model of the energy security index. The model evaluation results show that: (1) in 1996-2009, the index of China's energy supply security presented an uptrend and then downtrend. For example, it presented a rapid uptrend in 1996-2001, a quick downtrend in 2002-2005, and a slow downtrend in 2006-2009. The energy supply security index in 2009 was kept basically the same as that in 1996. (2) In 1996-2009, the index of China's energy using security presented a fluctuated uptrend. For example, it presented a fluctuating uptrend in 1996-2002, and dropped to a relative low level in 2003-2005, and then quickly rose in 2006-2009. (3) The policy of "China's energy-saving and emission reduction" has slowed down the decreasing speed of the index of energy supply security and also conspicuously improved the index of energy using security, so that the composite index of China's energy security presented an uptrend, then downtrend and finally uptrend. The policy of "China's energy-saving and emission reduction" has been successfully conducted, proving that a win-win result can be achieved between climate change protection and China's energy security. © 2011.

Jiao J.-L.,Hefei University of Technology | Qi Y.-Y.,Hefei University of Technology | Cao Q.,Hefei University of Technology | Liu L.-C.,Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection | Liang Q.-M.,Beijing Institute of Technology
Energy Strategy Reviews | Year: 2013

This paper estimated CO2 emissions based on the IPCC reference approach under five scenarios that consider China's economic and energy development strategy. Based on the LDMI method, the contributions of per-capita production value, industrial structure, energy intensity, energy mix and coefficients of discharge to CO2 emissions were analyzed in nine carbon-intensive industries. The emission reduction target for nine industries and five influencing factors were allocated, using scenarios in which China's emission reduction target is not realized. The results show that the reduction target can be realized completely if energy intensity and the share of non-fossil fuel use in primary energy consumption can reach the objectives of China's mid and long-term strategic. There will be uncertainly if the share of non-fossil fuel use does not increase to 15%. And the task of reducing emissions in the industry of Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous Metals is the most arduous among the nine industries considered.© 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Liu L.-C.,Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection | Liu L.-C.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Wu G.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Wu G.,CAS Institute of Policy and Management | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2011

In China, Rapid economic growth has stimulated fast urban expansion and rural household income and consumption expenditure. In current paper, an input-output method is used to determine the impact of China's increased urban and rural household consumption on carbon emissions. The results shows that the direct and indirect CO2 emission from household consumption accounted for more than 40% of total carbon emissions from primary energy utilization in China in 1992-2007. The population increase, expansion of urbanization and the increase of household consumption per capita all contribute to an increase of indirect carbon emissions, while carbon intensity decline mitigates the growth of carbon emissions. Therefore, at the domestic level, household consumption is of great significance for CO2 emission, which could be mitigated through changing the composition of goods and services consumed by households, and switching to consumption pattern of less carbon-intensive products. The government must consider the substantial contribution of household consumption to carbon emissions when China is encouraging consumption in order to address the current global financial crisis. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Liu L.-C.,Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection | Wu G.,CAS Institute of Policy and Management
Energy | Year: 2013

With the rapid development of industrialization and urbanization, China faces a number of serious environmental problems that significantly affect economic and social sustainable development. In this paper we quantify the CO2, SO2, NOx, COD (chemical oxygen demand) and ammonia-nitrogen emissions resulting from household consumption, based on an input-output model used to identify which consumption items appear mainly responsible for environmental impacts and which consumption items can lead to different environmental impacts in 2007. Using a 2007 input-output table, we found that CO2, SO2, COD, NOx, and ammonia-nitrogen emissions from household consumption in 2007 accounted for approximately 42.17%, 33.67%, 33.11%, 28.83% and 30.38% of China's total emissions, respectively. Each environmental impact arises from the consumption of a mix of goods and services. "Agriculture" and "Food and Tobacco Manufacture" consumption contributed more than 50% of COD and ammonia nitrogen emissions; "Electricity and Heating Generation" and "Food and Tobacco Manufacture" accounted for more than 50% of SO2, NOx and CO2 emissions. We classified consumption items into different types, with Type 1 and Type 3 countering each other, illustrating a trade-off between stimulating household consumption, mitigating COD and Ammonia nitrogen emissions and mitigating CO2, SO2 and NOx emissions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Long T.,Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection | Ramsburg C.A.,Tufts University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2011

Stabilization of reactive iron particles against aggregation and sedimentation is a critical engineering aspect for successful application of nZVI (nanoscale zero valent iron) within the contaminated subsurface environment. In this work we explore the stability and reactivity of a new encapsulation approach that relies upon Gum Arabic to stabilize high quantities of nZVI (~12g/L) in the dispersed phase of a soybean oil-in-water emulsion. The emulsion is kinetically stable due to substantial repulsive barriers to droplet-droplet induced deformation and subsequent coalescence. Sedimentation time scales were found to be on the order of hours (τ=4.77±0.02h). Thus, the use of Gum Arabic represents an advance in stabilizing nZVI-in-oil-in-water emulsions. nZVI within the emulsion was shown to be reactive with both TCE degradation and H2 production observed. Degradation rates were observed to be on the same order of magnitude as those reported for less stable, aqueous suspensions of nZVI. TCE consumption within the emulsion was described with an equivalent aqueous phase rate coefficient of ~5×10-4Laq/m2h. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Cai B.-F.,Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection
Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue/China Environmental Science | Year: 2014

Chongqing 1 km resolution CO2 emission gridded data had been built up based on point emission sources and other supporting data. The CO2 emissions in Chongqing's four urban boundaries, namely city administrative boundary (UB1), city district boundary (UB2), city built-up area (UB3) and urban proper (UB4), were analyzed and compared based on this emission gridded dataset. UB4 was the appropriate spatial boundary for city of Chongqing, while UB1 was suitable for the spatial boundary of Chongqing region. Different urban boundaries could result in substantial emission discrepancy. The total emissions of UB4 only accounted for 17.13% of the emissions of UB1, whereas the per capita emissions of UB4 were 1.6 times of UB1 level. The UB4, with average emissions of grid more than 10000tons, shaped the emissions center of the UB1. The emissions of grids in more than 70% area of UB1 were lower than 200tons. The predominant share of industrial emissions in total emissions in UB4 resulted in the spatial pattern that the per capita emissions were higher in urban area than in its peripheral area. This pattern was opposite to what was found in cities of developed countries. There was spatially clustering phenomenon in CO2 emissions in UB1, as indicated by spatial autocorrelation analysis. This implied that the economic activities and energy consumption in some areas have significant positive effect on its surroundings. Emissions of certain individual grid accounted for more than 40% of the total emissions in UB4. The emissions in 7.00% area of UB4, 1.21% area of UB1 and 3.84% area of UB2, had accounted for more that 85% of emissions in their correspondent urban boundaries.

Gong M.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Du P.,Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection | Liu X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhu C.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2014

The solubilization of tricalcium phosphate is often considered as the standard for screening of most phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms (PSMs). However, usually the effect of large-scale application of PSM on the promotion of crop growth varies. This study presents an efficient method for screening and testing phosphate-solubilizing fungus that enhance plant growth. A fungus Penicillium oxalicum I1 (P-I1) was isolated and identified that had high ability of phosphate-solubilization and could utilize maize root exudates as sources, and propagate well in vitro and in soil. P-I1 excreted oxalic acid and reached 593.9 μg/ml, and the pH value was decreased from 6.90 to 1.65 in 26 h. The amount of P-I1 increased by 48-fold in 28 d and was maintained for 49 d in soil. PSM showed selectivity on the transformation of the different forms of phosphorus, a wide range of insoluble phosphates, such as Ca8H2(PO4)6·5H2O, AlPO4, FePO4, and Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, were converted to soluble CaHPO4 in soil, and CaHPO4 was also inhibited from being converted into insoluble phosphate by P-I1. The Ca2-P content reached 27.11 μg/g soil on day 28 at 20°C, which increased by 110.32%, and plant growth promotion was tested and verified, the results showed that maize yield increased remarkably than control after inoculated P-I1, maize yield increased maximum by 14.47%. The data presented that P-I1 appear attractive for exploring their plant growth-promoting activity and potential field application. © 2014, The Microbiological Society of Korea and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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