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Kang N.,Chinese Institute of Clinical Medicine
Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology | Year: 2010

With the popularized use cell phones, more and more concern has been aroused over the effects of their radiation on human health, particularly on male reproduction. Cell phone radiation may cause structural and functional injuries of the testis, alteration of semen parameters, reduction of epididymal sperm concentration and decline of male fertility. This article presents an overview on the impact of cell phone radiation on male reproduction.

Li Y.,Peking University | Cang M.,Inner Mongolia University | Lee A.S.,Stanford University | Zhang K.,Chinese Institute of Clinical Medicine | Liu D.,Inner Mongolia University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Animal embryonic stem cells (ESCs) provide powerful tool for studies of early embryonic development, gene targeting, cloning, and regenerative medicine. However, the majority of attempts to establish ESC lines from large animals, especially ungulate mammals have failed. Recently, another type of pluripotent stem cells, known as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), have been successfully generated from mouse, human, monkey, rat and pig. In this study we show sheep fibroblasts can be reprogrammed to pluripotency by defined factors using a drug-inducible system. Sheep iPSCs derived in this fashion have a normal karyotype, exhibit morphological features similar to those of human ESCs and express AP, Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and the cell surface marker SSEA-4. Pluripotency of these cells was further confirmed by embryoid body (EB) and teratoma formation assays which generated derivatives of all three germ layers. Our results also show that the substitution of knockout serum replacement (KSR) with fetal bovine serum in culture improves the reprogramming efficiency of sheep iPSCs. Generation of sheep iPSCs places sheep on the front lines of large animal preclinical trials and experiments involving modification of animal genomes. © 2011 Li et al.

Shi Y.C.,Chinese Institute of Clinical Medicine
Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE: The past few years have seen great progress in the studies of the relationship between AZF microdeletions and male infertility. However, some molecular and clinical concerns are not supported by definitive data. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and types of AZF microdeletions in infertile Chinese men, and the indications for genotype-phenotype correlation. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed Y chromosome AZF microdeletions among 502 patients with nonobstructive azoospermia and 306 with severe oligozoospermia received in our hospital during the past five years. RESULTS: Microdeletions were detected in 7.80% of the patients (63/808), 9.16% in the men with nonobstructive azoospermia (46/502) and 5.56% in those with severe oligozoospermia (17/306). Complete AZFa and AZFb (P5/Proximal P1) deletions were associated with azoospermia, whereas AZFc deletion with variable spermatogenic phenotypes. A mild decline in sperm concentration was found in one male with partial AZFb deletion. The most frequent deletion was the AZFc b2/b4 subtype (60.32%, 38/63), and 39.47% of the cases (15/38) had sperm in the ejaculate. Of the 63 deletions, only one case of the AZFc b2/b4 type had a sperm concentration of over 2 million sperm/ml. CONCLUSION: AZF microdeletions play a significant role in the diagnosis and evaluation of spermatogenic defects. Larger-scale clinical researches on Y chromosome microdeletions may give us a deeper insight into their mechanism and the genotype-phenotype relationship.

Tao X.Q.,Chinese Institute of Clinical Medicine
Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE: Gonadotropin releasing hormones (GnRH) regulate the expression of annexin 5 in Leydig cells, and annexin 5 is supposed to be a signal molecule in regulating testosterone secretion. This study aimed to investigate the function of annexin 5 in male reproduction by observing its effect on human sperm motility in vitro. METHODS: The encoding sequence of rat annexin 5 was chemically synthesized and inserted into the HIS fusion expression vector pET28a. The expression of the fusion protein HIS-annexin 5 was induced by isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG) under the control of the T7 promoter, and the products were purified by affinity chromatography. The anticoagulant activity of annexin 5 was determined by the modified activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) test. Semen samples from 15 donors were assigned to a control and an annexin 5 group, the latter treated with recombinant annexin 5 at the concentration of 10(-8) mol/L. Sperm motility and the percentage of grade a + b sperm were measured by computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) after 20 and 60 min exposure, and the sperm ascending experiment was done after 20 min treatment. RESULTS: The product of the synthesized target gene was 947 bp in length, and the inserted sequence corresponded to the published encoding sequence of rat annexin 5. The plasmid pET28a-annexin 5 was transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3) and IPTG induced a fusion protein with a relative molecular weight of about 36,000, a purity of 95% and a high anticoagulant activity. Compared with the control group, sperm motility and the percentage of grade a + b sperm were increased by 40% (P < 0.01) and 21% (P < 0.01), respectively, after 20 min treatment with annexin 5, but neither showed any significant improvement after 60 min. The sperm ascending altitude was remarkably elevated after annexin 5 treatment, with extremely significant difference from the control group (37.84 +/- 6.35 vs. 49.5 +/- 12.27, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: An annexin 5 recombinant expression vector was successfully constructed. The protein annexin 5 can be efficiently expressed in E. coli and effectively improve human sperm motility in vitro.

Jing J.,Chinese Institute of Clinical Medicine
Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology | Year: 2012

To study the differentially expressed proteins in the process of annexin 5 stimulating testosterone secretion in cultured rat Leydig cells. Primary rat Leydig cells were cultured in vitro and treated with annexin 5 at the concentration of 1 nmol/L for 24 hours, and the cell proteins were extracted to be compared by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). The differentially expressed protein spots were selected to be analyzed by mass spectrometry. We obtained electrophoresis profiles with high resolution and reproducibility, found 50 differentially expressed protein spots, and identified 36 by mass spectrometry, of which 23 were overexpressed and 13 underexpressed in the Leydig cells treated with annexin 5. Differentially expressed protein profiles were established in the process of annexin 5 stimulating testosterone secretion in cultured rat Leydig cells, and identified the key role of these proteins in testosterone secretion. Our findings might be helpful to illuminate the mechanism of annexin 5 regulating testosterone secretion in rat Leydig cells.

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