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Ning X.,Tianjin Medical University | Shi Z.,Tianjin Medical University | Shi Z.,Tianjin Neurological Institute | Shi Z.,Key Laboratory of Post Trauma Neuro Repair and Regeneration in Central Nervous System | And 17 more authors.
Cancer Letters

Aberrant expression of the microRNA-200 (miR-200) family has been linked to the occurrence and development of various types of malignant tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), colon cancer and breast cancer. However, little is known about the precise mechanism by which miR-200 expression is downregulated. The intricate relationship between DNA methylation and histone modifications has become a subject of increasing interest. The expression of miR-200 family members is modified by similar or complementary epigenetic mechanisms in MGC-803 and BGC-823 gastric cancer cells and U87 MG glioma cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) bound to miR-200b/a/429 promoter regions, indicating an interaction between DNMT1 and the miR-200b/a/429 promoter. Furthermore, Co-Immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) detection showed that DNMT1, together with the PcG protein Enhancer of Zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a histone methyltransferase, contributed to the transcriptional repression of microRNA-200 family members. Knockdown of EZH2 not only impacted H3K27 trimethylation but also reduced DNMT1 presence on the miR-200b/a/429 promoter. EZH2 appeared to be essential for DNMT1 recruitment to the promoter region. Silencing EZH2 and DNMT1 using drugs or RNA interference dramatically reduced the levels of miR-200b/a/429 expression. Collectively, these results indicated that EZH2 and DNMT1-mediated epigenetic silencing contributed to the progression of gastric cancer and glioblastoma, and therefore represents a novel therapeutic target for malignant tumors. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Zhang R.,Nanjing Medical University | Luo H.,Nanjing Medical University | Wang S.,Nanjing Medical University | Chen Z.,Nanjing Medical University | And 15 more authors.
Journal of Neuro-Oncology

Malignant gliomas are the most common and devastating primary brain tumors in adults. The rapid invasion of tumor cells into the adjacent normal brain tissues is a major cause of treatment failure, yet the mechanisms that regulate this process remain poorly understood. MicroRNAs have recently emerged as regulators of invasion and metastasis by acting on multiple signaling pathways. In this study, we found that miR-622 is significantly downregulated in glioma tissues and cell lines. Functional experiments showed that increased miR-622 expression reduced glioma cell invasion and migration, whereas decreased miR-622 expression enhanced cell invasion and migration. Moreover, activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2), an important transcription factor that regulate tumor invasion, was identified as a direct target of miR-622. Knockdown of ATF2 using small interefering RNA recapitulated the anti-invasive function of miR-622, whereas restoring the ATF2 expression attenuated the function of miR-622 in glioma cells. Furthermore, clinical data indicated that miR-622 and ATF2 were inversely expressed in glioma specimens. Our findings provide insight into the specific biological behavior of miR-622 in tumor invasion and migration. Targeting miR-622/ATF2 axis is a novel therapeutic approach for blocking glioma invasion. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Shi Z.,Tianjin Medical University | Shi Z.,Key Laboratory of Neurotrauma | Shi Z.,Chinese Glioma Cooperative Group CGCG | Zhang J.,Tianjin Medical University | And 25 more authors.
Cancer Research

The extensive involvement of miRNAs in cancer pathobiology has opened avenues for drug development based on oncomir inhibition. Dicer is the core enzyme in miRNA processing that cleaves the terminal loop of precursor microRNAs (pre-miRNAs) to generate mature miRNA duplexes. Using the three-dimensional structure of the Dicer binding site on the pre-miR-21 oncomir, we conducted an in silico high-throughput screen for small molecules that block miR-21 maturation. By this method, we identified a specific small-molecule inhibitor of miR-21, termed AC1MMYR2, which blocked the ability of Dicer to process pre-miR-21 to mature miR-21. AC1MMYR2 upregulated expression of PTEN, PDCD4, and RECK and reversed epithelial-mesenchymal transition via the induction of E-cadherin expression and the downregulation of mesenchymal markers, thereby suppressing proliferation, survival, and invasion in glioblastoma, breast cancer, and gastric cancer cells. As a single agent in vivo, AC1MMYR2 repressed tumor growth, invasiveness, and metastasis, increasing overall host survival with no observable tissue cytotoxicity in orthotopic models. Our results offer a novel, high-throughput method to screen for small-molecule inhibitors of miRNA maturation, presenting AC1MMYR2 as a broadly useful candidate antitumor drug. ©2013 AACR. Source

Cai J.,Harbin Medical University | Cai J.,Chinese Glioma Cooperative Group CGCG | Chen J.,Capital Medical University | Chen J.,Chinese Glioma Cooperative Group CGCG | And 20 more authors.

Loss of ATRX leads to epigenetic alterations, including abnormal levels of DNA methylation at repetitive elements such as telomeres in murine cells. We conducted an extensive DNA methylation and mRNA expression profile study on a cohort of 82 patients with astrocytic tumors to study whether ATRX expression was associated with DNA methylation level in astrocytic tumors and in which cellular functions it participated.We observed that astrocytic tumors with lower ATRX expression harbored higher DNA methylation level at chromatin end and astrocytic tumors with ATRX-low had distinct gene expression profile and DNA methylation profile compared with ATRX-high tumors. Then, we uncovered that several ATRX associated biological functions in the DNA methylation and mRNA expression profile (GEP), including apoptotic process, DNA-dependent positive regulation of transcription, chromatin modification, and observed that ATRX expression was companied by MGMT methylation and expression. We also found that loss of ATRX caused by siRNA induced apoptotic cells increasing, reduced tumor cell proliferation and repressed the cell migration in glioma cells.Our results showed ATRX-related regulatory functions of the combined profiles from DNA methylation and mRNA expression in astrocytic tumors, and delineated that loss of ATRX impacted biological behaviors of astrocytic tumor cells, providing important resources for future dissection of ATRX role in glioma. Source

Bao Z.-S.,Beijing Neurosurgical Institute | Bao Z.-S.,Capital Medical University | Bao Z.-S.,Chinese Glioma Cooperative Group CGCG | Chen H.-M.,Peking University | And 43 more authors.
Genome Research

Studies of gene rearrangements and the consequent oncogenic fusion proteins have laid the foundation for targeted cancer therapy. To identify oncogenic fusions associated with glioma progression, we catalogued fusion transcripts by RNA-seq of 272 gliomas. Fusion transcripts were more frequently found in high-grade gliomas, in the classical subtype of gliomas, and in gliomas treated with radiation/temozolomide. Sixty-seven in-frame fusion transcripts were identified, including three recurrent fusion transcripts: FGFR3-TACC3, RNF213-SLC26A11, and PTPRZ1-MET (ZM). Interestingly, the ZM fusion was found only in grade III astrocytomas (1/13; 7.7%) or secondary GBMs (sGBMs, 3/20; 15.0%). In an independent cohort of sGBMs, the ZM fusion was found in three of 20 (15%) specimens. Genomic analysis revealed that the fusion arose from translocation events involving introns 3 or 8 of PTPRZ and intron 1 of MET. ZM fusion transcripts were found in GBMs irrespective of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation status. sGBMs harboring ZM fusion showed higher expression of genes required for PIK3CA signaling and lowered expression of genes that suppressed RB1 or TP53 function. Expression of the ZM fusion was mutually exclusive with EGFR overexpression in sGBMs. Exogenous expression of the ZM fusion in the U87MG glioblastoma line enhanced cell migration and invasion. Clinically, patients afflicted with ZM fusion harboring glioblastomas survived poorly relative to those afflicted with non-ZM-harboring sGBMs (P < 0.001). Our study profiles the shifting RNA landscape of gliomas during progression and reveled ZM as a novel, recurrent fusion transcript in sGBMs. © 2014 Bao et al. Source

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